Bureau of Indian Affairs
A government agency created in the 1800s to oversee federal policy toward Native Americans
John M. Chivington
US army colonel who lead troops at the Sand Creek Massacre
Sand Creek Massacre
US army's killing of about 200 Cheyenne elderly, women and children at the Sand Creek Reservation in Colorado territory
Sioux chief who led the attack on Custer at the Battle of the Little Bighorn
George Armstrong Custer
United States general who was killed along with all his command by the Sioux at the battle of Little Bighorn (1839-1876)
Battle of Little Bighorn
In 1876, Indian leaders Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse defeated Custer's troops who tried to force them back on to the reservation, Custer and all his men died
A Paiute Indian who began a religious movement called Ghost Dance.
Massacre at Wounded Knee
a massacre in 1890 that started when Sioux left the reservation in protest because of the death of Sitting Bull. The US army killed 150 sioux Indians; last major incident in the great plains
The Native American leader who attempted to lead his people to Canada from Oregon
Apache chieftain who raided the white settlers in the Southwest as resistance to being confined to a reservation
This Paiute Indian gave lectures on the problems of the reservations in the 1870's
Dawes General Allotment Act
1887 law that divided reservation land into private family plots of 160 acres each
buildings that were made from chunks cut from, the heavy topsoil that were stacked like bricks
farm controlled by large businesses, managed by professionals, and raising massive quantities of single cash crops
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years.
Pacific Railway Act
(1862) law that gave lands to railroad companies to develop a line linking the East and West Coasts
gave federal land to the states to help finance agricultural and engineering colleges
african americans who migrated from the South to the Great Plains following the Civil War
70-year-old leader of African American pioneers known as exodusters, who moved to the Great Plains after the Civil War.
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Created in 1862; helped farmers adapt to their new environment; sought out and promoted new varieties of wheat suitable to the Great Plains
Virgina-born noveilst wrote movingly of pioneering on the prariries
Civil engineer who had the vision to build a railroad across the Sierra Nevada mountains?
Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the east coast with the west coast, revolutionizing transportation in the west.
town located along a railroad; long cattle drives usually ended there
A vast area of grassland owned by the government where ranchers could graze their herds for free
Hardy breed of cow created by interbreeding English and Spanish cattle. It was resistant to Texas fever and required little water.
Patented in 1874 by Joseph Glidden, prevented animals from freely roaming the Great Plains, altered the economy of the American West.
Mining technique developed in Mexico and South America during the 1700s that used mercury to extract silver from ore; used in the western United States.
mining technique that uses water pressure to remove gravel and dirt, exposing minerals underneath.
One of the world's richest silver veins. Discovered in Nevada in the mid 1800's.
William H. Seward
arranged the purchase of Alaska from Russia
Technique that involves sinking deep mine shafts to get at ore in veins of rock.
Dead Man's Hand
The poker hand consisting of a pair aces and eights that was held by Wild Bill Hickok when he was shot dead in Deadwood, South Dakota