Chpt 3 The Living Units

26 terms by Lpadilla 

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Organelle

Highly organized intracellular structure that performs a specific (metabolic) function for the cell

Cell

The basic structural and functional unity of living organisms

What functions do cells in the body have in common

Ability ot metabolize, to reproduce, to grow, to respond to a stimulus, and move

Plasma membrane

External boundary of cell; regulates flow of materials into and out of the cell; site of cell signaling

Lysome

Contains digestive enzymes of many varieties; "suicide sac" of the cell

Mitochondria

Scattered throughout the cell; major site of ATP synthesis

Microvilli

Slender extensions of the plasma membrane that increase its surface area

Inclusions

Stored gycogen granules, crystals, pigments, and so on

Golgi apparatus

Membranous system consisting of flattened sacs and vesicles' packages proteins for export

Nucleus

Control center of the cell; necessary for cell division and cell life

Centrioles

Two rod shaped bodies near the nucleus' direct formation of the mitotic spindle

Nucleolus

Dense, darkly straining nuclear body; packaging site for ribosomes

Microfiloments

Contractile elements of the cytoskeleton

ER or Rough Endoplamic Retriculum

Membranous system; involved in intracellular transport of proteins and synthesis of membrane lipids

Ribosomes

Attached to membrane systems or scattered in the cytoplasm; synthesize proteins

Chromatin or Chromatin Threads

Threadlike structures in the nucleus; contain genetic material (DNA)

Peroxisome

Site of free radial detoxification

Squamous epithelium

Cells fit closely together like floor tiles; lining or covering tissue

Sperm

Has a tail or flagellum; allow sperm to propel itself to an egg

Smooth Muscle

Cells have an elongated shape; a long axis allows a greater degree of shortening

Red Blood Cells

A nucleate ( or no nucleus) disc-shaped; large surface area; more "room" to carry hemoglobin or oxygen

Interphase

Cell appears to look somewhat normal under microscope. DNA is replicating, cell chromosomes are replicating

Prophase

DNA is replicated, chromosomes duplicated into two sister chromatids, joined by a centromere

Metaphase

Duplicated chromosomes line up at equator of nucleus

Anaphase

Centromeres divid, sister chromatids are now splitting

Telophase

Nuclear envelope develops around each sister chromatid (chromosome), chromosomes uncoil and become chromatin

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