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temperate climate

mild; moderate in temperature

deforestation

the process of clearing the land of forests, often to make room for farms and cities

Eurasia

a large landmass that includes the continents of Europe and Asia

Ural Mountains

seperate Europe from Asia in the North

Caucasus Mountains

seperate Europe from Asia in the south

Carpathian Mountains

North of Balken peninsula largest mountains in eastern europe

Pyrenees Mountains

seperate spain from france

Alps Mountains

Europe's highest Mountains from mediterranean coast to the balken peninsula

British Isles

Great Britain, Ireland, and some smaller isles

North European Plain

A large, fertile area that extends from the Atlantic ocean to the Ural mountains

North Sea

A large arm of the Atlantic Ocean, between Great Britain and continental Europe

Sein River

A river that flows from eastern france northward into the English channel

Middle Ages

A period in European history between A.D. 500 and the 1400s

feudalism

starting in europe around A.D. 800, a system for organizing and governing society based on land and service

lord

In the middle ages, a noble who owned and controlled all activities on his manor

fief

In the middle ages, a property given to a vassal in exchange for protection

vassal

a noble who usually was given a fief by his lord in exchange for protection

serf

a person who was bound to work on a noble's manor

guild

an organization of workers in a trade or craft that set standerds and protected the interests of its members

manor

a large self-sufficient estate granted to a lord and worked by serfs

knight

someone who was a male who pledged loyalty and protection to a king- defenders, fightingman

Charlemagne

king of the franks from 786 to 814, emperor of Rome from 800 to 814

Magna Carta

a legal document written by English lordsin 215 that started certain rights and limited the power of th king

William The Conqueror

Norman King,in 1066 he defeated Harold, the Anglo Saxon King, to become the first Norman King of England

King John I

King of Englandfrom 1199 to 1216 A.D. in 1215 he signed the Magna Carta, giving rights to nobles

Aachen

Capital of Charlemagne's empire, a city in present dayGermany

Normandy

a region in Northwestern France on the English Channel

England

Part of the United KIngdom, on the island of Great Britian

manastery

a community in which monks lead lives devoted to religion`

convent

a community in which nuns live and pray

monk

a man who devotes his life to religion, usually giving up all that he owns

nun

a woman who devoted her life to religion, living in a convent

saint

a woman or man considered by a holy group to be especially holy

cathedral

a large or important christian church

Benedict

Italian monk, founder of the Benedictine order

Francis of Assisi

Italian monk, who founded the Francism order; he devoted his life to serving the poor and sick

Crusades

any of the journeys and battles made by europeanchriatians between 1095 and 1270, to win control of the holy land from the muslims

Chartres

a city in northwestern France, noted for its cathedral

plague

a terrible disease that spreads quickly and kills many people

Pope Urban II

Pope who called for the first crusade to reclaim Jerusalem from the muslims

Age of faith

time period in the niddle agea, religion was important and church was powerful

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