a mammal is an animal which has hair and ammary glands, which secrete mile. Mammals are warm blooded, have a four chambered heart and generally bear young alive.
Vessels that carry blood away from the heart. Typically, but not always, arteries carry oxygenated blood. The exception is the pulmonary artery
Vessels that carry blood to the heart. Gereally veins carry deoxygenated blood. The exception is the pulmonary vein.
A translucent "third eyelid" which serves to moisten and clean the eye by moving across it
A posture characterized by the weight of the foot being carried on the third and fourth digits of the foot. The feet are hoofed. This is contrasted with the plantigrade stance where the weight is carried over the whole lower surface of the foot.
A granular appearing salivary gland located behind the massester muscle. Saliva is transported to the mouth via the parotid duct
A salivary gland lovated under the massestter muscle. It is small and bean shaped
The projection in the back of the mouth which covers the glottis when swallowing to prevent food from passing into the trachea
Commonly called the windpipe, this tube has catilaginous rings to hold it open. It carries air to the lungs
An enlarged structure located just above the rachea, it contains the vocal cords, which are responsible for producing sound
A small, highly vascularized gland that is important in regulating metabolism. The thyroid gland produces thyroxin, a hormone which stimulates growth.
These glands are part of the lymphatic system. They produce lymphocytes and provide immunity. They diminish with age and are absent in adults
The membrane surrounding the heart. It forms a fluid filled pericardial sac providing protective cushioning
It is collapsible tube without carilaginous rings. The esophagus carries food from the mouth to the stomach by peristalsis
A shet-llike muscle which separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities. It aids in inhalation and exhalation
The liver cleans the blood of toxic material. It also produces bile, which aids in fat digestion
Both an endocrine and exocrine gland that provides digestive exzymes as well as insulin to regulate sugar levels
A circular muscle at the junction of the stomach and small intestince that controls movement of food into the small intestine
Finger-like projections which increase surface area of the small intestine for absorption of digested materials
A blind pouch at the juntion of the small and large intestines. It contains bacteria which aid in the digestion of plnt material
Kidneys are located outside the peritoneum on the dorsal wall. They regulate water and salt concentration and remove waste in the form of urine
The duct which carries urine from the bladder to the outside on the body. It also functions as part of the reproductive system in males as it also carries sperm to the outside
Stores urine temporarily until it is removed via the allantoic stalk to the placenta. The urethra becomes functional after birth
A muscular organ in which young develop until birth. It forms the placenta along with extra embryonic membranes. Pigs have a bipartit uterus, an adaptation which allows for multiple births
Site of gamete (sperm) production in males. Depending on the age of the pig, they may be anyuwhere from below the kidneys to the scrotum
Copulatory organ of the male, through which the urethra carries sperm to the outside of the body. Not the close association of the excretory and reproductive systems in the male
Numerous functions especially in metabolism. Regulate glucose levels in the blood by converting glucose to glycogen and vice versa. May synthesize glucose or glycogen from other substances. Detoxifies the body by storing harmful chemicals. Stores vitamins and iron, makes blood proteins and red blood cells (int he fetus). Produces bile
Stores bile. Cystic duct carries bile from liver to gall bladder. Bile transfered to the duodenum by cystic ducts
Mixed food (mechanical digesition). Also produces digestive enzymes which, in the presence of HCL, begin the breakdow of proteins
Exocrines: Produce digestive enzymes
Endocrines: produce insulin, which increases rate at which glucose is removed from blood and used or stored by cells to produce glucogen, which has effects opposite to insulin
Responsible for absorption of water from undigested food and elimination of solid wast
Lyphatic syste. Plays an important part in development of immunologic capacities by production of lymphacytes and in the maturatio of lyphatic system
regulates metabolism. Produced thyroxin, which can increase metabolic rates and, consequently, increase body temperature
A cartilagenous projection above the glottis. During swallowing it closes over the glottis and prevents food from entering the trachea
a region where the digestive and respiratory systems cross. Not a visable structure. The pharynx is divided into two regions, doral and the soft palate is the Nasopharynx and ventral to the soft palate is the oropharynx
The left ventricle ____ and ocygen rich blood travels through the _____ and then _______
contracts, aorta, throughout the body
Why is the fetal pigs circulation different from the adult
it is in a fluid fuild environment and is not yet using its lungs
____ and _____ are supplied, and _____ is removed from the fetal pig via the _______
oxygen and nutrients, CO2, placenta
fetal: _______ dranis blood from the upper body and the _______ drans blood from the lower body
Fetal: After blood goes through the right atruim it _____________________
is immediately shunted to the left atrium through an opening called the foramen ovale
Fetal: not all blood makes it to the foramen ovale. Where does it go?
some travels to the right ventricle and into the pulonary trunk
How does fetal pig get oxygenated blood?
The umbilical vein: the fetus' blood travels through a capilary network in the placenta and absorbs oxygen from the mother's blood
In the fetal pig when the blood from the placenta joins the postcava and enters the atrium it is
already partially oxygenated
How does blood get from the fetal pig to the placenta?
Through the aorta to the unbical arteries that lead to the placenta where oxygen is absorbed and CO2 is removed
What happens to a fetal pig at birth?
Changes in pressure cause a flab of tissue to close the foramen ovale in the heart, separating ocygen poor and oxygen rich blood, Lungs start to function (supplying oxygen and removing CO2), the ductus arteriosus and ductus venosus close and become ligaments, the umbilical arteris and veins collapse.
How does the shape of the vertebral column in cats and human differ?
Humans have thicker vertebre wich hold the spine upright. Cats spine curves down