Chamberlin-> Churchill (Great Britain), de Gaulle (France), FDR -> Truman (United States)
Axis Powers Leaders
Hitler (Germany), Mussolini (Italy), Tojo (Japan)
The Axis Powers signed this mutual defense treaty, aimed at keeping US out of war by forcing a fight on two oceans
Arsenal of Democracy
FDR tells US needs to become this if Britain falls, Axis Power free to conquer world
US to lend or lease supplies for defense
Hitler breaks pact with Stalin and invades here while US sends lend-lease supplies to them
groups of up to 40 submarines patrol North Atlantic. sink supply ships
FDR, Churchill issue a joint declaration of war aims.
4) economic cooperation
5) freedom of seas
Reaction to Pearl Harbor
US declares war on Japan
Germany, Italy declare war on US
US unprepared to fight in both Atlantic, Pacific Oceans
Women's Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC)
women in noncombat positions. Thousands enlist. "auxiliary" is dropped, get full US army benefits
A Philip Randolph
head of Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters.
Organizes march on DC; FDR executive order forbids discrimination
develops atomic bomb
Office of Price Administration
freezes prices, fights inflation
War Production Board
says which companies convert production.
1) allocates raw materials
2) organizes collection of recyclable materials
fixed allotments of goods needed by military
Totalitarian Dictators in Europe
Benito Mussolini, Adolf Hitler, Francisco Franco, and Josef Stalin
government that maintains complete control over its citizens
Civil War in Spain
Nationalists vs. Republicans. Nationalists won- Franco leader. Republicans- world on side. Nationalists- Axis powers sided
Japanese Aggression in the Pacific
Japan advances in China, Asian coast. US cut off Japan oil. US moved military fleet to Pearl Harbor
German Advances in Europe
Greece, Yugoslavia, Crete, Portugal, Spain. Using their Blitzkrieg techniques, the German forces stormed through these countries, meeting little to no resistance. When Soviet Union was going to be attacked, they burned down their buildings.
Fall of France
surrounded and occupied Belgium and Holland, able to get into France. GB and France on counterattack in Belgium when English Channel and Captured Paris. Puppet government by Pètain
When many of the French and British fled to Dunkirk, over 800 merchant ships and boats helped French, British and Belgian forces to cross the English Channel and reach safety.
Battle of Britain
Luftwaffe bomb Britain. Royal Air Forced used radar to detect and shoot down Luftwaffe
Jew Refugees and St. Louis
Nazi storm troopers attacked Jewish homes and places. US did not accepted Jews. ________ ship sent refugees to Miami coast, but Jews were sent back.
agreed to Hitler's Sudetenland invasion
Japanese prime minister
called himself Il Duce
led fascist rebellion in Spain
British prime minister during WWII
totalitarian ruler of Soviet Union
Charles de Gaulle
ruler of French gov. in exile
leader of Nazi party
form of government that stresses nationalism and places the interest of the state above individual
Germany's military strategy relied on quick strikes with the use of advanced weaponry
End of Battle of Stalingrad
Germany bombed Stalingrad. When tried to take over, Soviets burned villages and retreated. Then Soviets marched toward Germany
End of Operation Torch
Allies fought Axis Powers in North Africa. When Africa Korps surrendered, Allies "masters of the North African shores"
Victory in Battle of Atlantic
Allies destroyed U-boats faster than Germans made them. Best month at sea during 46 months war.
D-Day (Invasion of Normandy)
Allies set up phantom army, send fake radio messages to fool Germans. Eisenhower directs Allied invasion
End of Battle of the Bugle
Germans planned to take Antwerp back. Lost irreplaceable equipment, soldiers, supplies. Forced to retreat
End of Italian Campaign
Mussolini forced to resign when Sicily captured by Italy. Germans tried to keep Italy in war.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
commanded Operation Torch
along with his army, he freed Paris from four years of German rule
Harry S. Truman
FDR's vp. 33rd president
Battle of Midway
Chester, Nimitz lead. Allies destroyed Japanese naval fleet, started island hopping
MacArthur lead. Allies advance. Most American casualties in Pacific. Only 200 Japanese survived
Battle of Okinawa
MacArthur lead. Last island battle before Japan.
May 8th, 1945. Few days after Hitler commits suicide, German Reich unconditional surrender. Gave Americans hope Japan's war would end soon
leads Allied forces in Philippines
FDR orders MacArthur to leave; thousands of troops remain
leads raid on Tokyo
Japan's first defeat on land.
Japanese Imperial Navy destroyed, more affected than US
pilots crash bomb-laden planes into ships
research director of Manhattan project
August 6. Major military center, destroyed by bomb.
3 days after Hiroshima, bomb dropped here
FDR, Churchill, Stalin meet in Yalta.
1) Temporarily divide Germany into 4 parts.
2) Stalin promises free elections in Eastern Europe, will fight Japan
3) FDR gets support United Nations
1100 Japanese tried, sentenced. MacArthur reshapes Japan's economy, government
1) Defense industries boom, unemployment @ 1.2%
2) Average 10% pay raise during war
3) Farmers prosper from rising crop prices, increase in production
4) Women in work force 35%
Social Adjustments during War
1) Families adjust to fathers gone, only mothers
2) Families must get to know again after fathers return
3) Couples marry fast before husband leaves
GI Bill of Rights
Servicemen's Readjustment Act.
pays education; loan guarantees for homes, new businesses
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
James Farmer founded. works on racial segregation in North. racial violence sweeps across nation- Detroit worst
Zoot Suit Riots
anti-Mexican involve thousands servicemen, civilians
African Americans and WWII
segregated drafts, often picked first. Pilots, tankers, medics, infantry men, officers and bombers.
Double V campaign
end racism at home and victory over enemies
harsh conditioned camps, discrimination. Forced to join War Relocation Authority. Executive Order 9066 apologized to Japanese, could return home.
Home Front during WWII
scarcity, rationing, shortage. Produced aircraft, tanks, rifles. Collected old tires, fabrics, scrap metal.