Phonetics Ch. 2

Created by ehsen611 

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26 terms

grapheme

a printed letter used in the representation of an allograph

phonetic alphabet

an alphabet that contains a separate letter for each individual sound in a language

allograph

-differing letter sequences or patterns that represent the same sound
- all digraphs are these, but not all of those are digraphs
ex) oo in moon (also a digraph)
ex) s in was, because of its place in the word it makes a z sound

digraph

-pair (2) of letters that represent one sound; the letters may be the same or different
ex) ss in tissue
sh in shoe
ea in steak

morpheme

-the smallest unit of LANGUAGE capable of carrying meaning
ex) walk because it a single unit with its own meaning

free morpheme

-a morpheme that can stand alone yet still carry meaning
ex) walk because its a single unit with its own meaning

bound morpheme

-a morpheme that must be linked to another morpheme in order to convey meaning
ex) -ed in walked because -ed changes the meaning to past tense but CANNOT exist on its own and needs "walk"

phoneme

-smallest unit of SPEECH capable of carrying a meaning
-is capable of changing the meaning
-individual sounds in a word
ex) "like" has 4 graphemes but /l aɪ k/ is 3 sounds = 3 (term)

minimal contrast pairs

a pair of words that vary by only one phoneme
ex) book and cook, bear and hair

allophone

- different ways to pronounce a letter
-variant production of a phoneme
ex) /ɫ/ or /l/

complementary distribution

allophone production that is tied to a particular phonetic environment
ex) spit and pit, you feel more air with pit than spit

free variation

refers to allophone production that is not tied to a particular phonetic environment
ex)hit you can emphasize the "T" or not

syllable

a basic unit of speech production and perception generally consisting of a segment of greatest acoustic energy (a peak, usually a vowel) and segments of lesser energy (troughs, usually consonants); a unit of speech consisting of an onset and/or a rhyme

onset

all consonants preceding a vowel in any syllable; not all syllables contain one

consonant cluster

two or three contiguous consonants in a syllable

nucleus

the part of a syllable with the greatest acoustic energy; usually, but not always, a vowel

coda

the consonants that follow a vowel in any syllable; not all syllables have one

syllabic consonant

a consonant that serves as the nucleus of a syllable

open syllable

a syllable with a vowel phoneme in the final position

closed syllable

a syllable with a consonant phoneme in the final position

word stress/lexical stress

the production of a syllable with increased force or muscular energy, resulting in a syllable that is perceived as being louder, longer in duration, and higher in pitch; also known as word accent

word class

also known as "part of speech"
ex) noun, verb, adjective

systematic phonemic transcription

phonemic transcription of an individual, used when the rules of the language are known; variant phoneme (i.e., allophone) production is not recorded; also referred to as broad transcription or phonemic transcription

systematic narrow transcription

allophonic transcription of an individual, used when the rules of the language are known; also referred to as narrow transcription or allophonic transcription

diacritic

a specialized phonetic symbol used in both systematic and impressionistic transcription to represent both allophone production as well as suprasegmental features of speech

impressionistic transcription

allophonic transcription of an unknown speaker or an unknown language

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