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Sahelanthropus tchadensis

"Toumai," ancestral Miocene ape found in Chad; brain case 340-360 cc; position of faramen magnum suggests bipedality; lived 6-7 mya

Orrorin tugenensis

"Millennium Man" found in Tugen Hills, Kenya; possibly earliest human ancestor, more human in some ways than australopithecines; possible bepedality; lived 6 mya

Ardipithecus ramidus

early Pliocene hominin; forest-dweller, possibly bipedal; lived about 4.4 mya

Australopithecus anamensis

found at Lake Turkana, Kenya, by Leaky and Walker; thick tooth enamel, rectangular dental arcade; tibia modified for bipedality; possible member of or direct predecessor of A. afarensis

Australopithecus afarensis

"Lucy," found at Laetoli, Tanzenia, and Hadar, Ethiopia; footprints evidence of bipedality; wrist adapted to tree climbing; cranial capacity 375-500 cc; lived 3.7-3.5 mya

Kenyanthropus platyops

found at Lake Turkana, Kenya, by Leaky in 1999; small brain case and small molars; possibly variant of A. afarensis; lived 3.5-2 mya

Australopithecus bahrelghazali

found by Brunet in Bahrel Ghazali, Chad; think enamel, incisor-like caninines; lived 3.5-3 mya, contemporary with A. afarensis

Australopithecus africanus

"Taung child," found by Dark; "Mrs. Ples," found by Broom in Sterkfontein; gracile australopithecine; grasping hallux; lived 3.0-2.3 mya

Australopithecus garhi

found with stone tools; gracile australopithecine; cranial capacity 450 cc; lived 2.5 mya

Australopithecus aethiopicus

"Black Skull," found in west Turkana, Kenya; lived in both savanna and woodland; early robust Pliocene australopithecine; cranial capacity 410 cc; lived 2.7-2.5 mya

Australopithecus boisei

"Zinjanthropus," found by Leaky in 1999; robust; cranial capacity 500-550 cc; lived 2.3-1.2 mya, contemporary with early Homo

Australopithecus robustus

discovered in South Africa by Broom in 1938; robust australopithecine; parabolic dental arcade, dished face, humanlike hallux, no diastema; cranial capacity 510 cc; lived 2.0-1.0 mya, contemporary with early Homo

Homo habilis

found by the Leakys in Tanzania, East Africa; found with Olduwan tools; cranial capacity 590-650 cc; lived 2.4-1.6 mya

Homo rudolfensis

skull found at Lake Turkana by Richard and Meave Leaky; possible variant of H. habilis due to sexual dimorphism; cranial capacity 526 cc; lived 1.9 mya

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