Where is Egypt located?
On the continent of Africa.
Where did the civilizations of Egypt mostly settle?
Along the fertile land of the Nile River.
What is most of the land in Egypt?
Dry, hot desert.
Where are the cataracts of Egypt located?
Along the Nile River.
Where is the MOUTH of the Nile River?
What was the ancient Egyptians system of writing called?
Who did the ancient Egyptians trade with?
Many other different countries.
What did the Nile River do for the ancient Egyptians and what did it give them access to?
The Nile River gave the ancient Egyptians a water highway and gave them access to three different continents and many different countries.
What did the ancient Egyptians use the resources and ideas that they found during their travels for.
They used the resources and ideas for advice while building a successful civilization.
How do we know what the ancient Egyptians looked like and how they dressed?
They left pictures and cave paintings of themselves.
What was the land of Egypt called?
The land of Egypt was called the Gift of the Nile.
Where does the Nile River begin?
It begins from tropical lakes and snowy mountains far to the south of Egypt.
What is the name of the desert that the Nile River flows through?
How did the Egyptians travel the Nile River?
They traveled the Nile River by boat.
What did they transport along the Nile River?
They transported heavy stones for building and cargo from foreign lands.
What did the desert protect the valley from?
The desert protected the valley from invasion from foreign armies.
What was the name of the valley of the Upper Nile?
The name is Upper Egypt.
What was the name of the area where the delta was located?
What was left behind when the Nile flooded?
Thick layers of mud and silt were left behind.
How did the Egyptians water their crops?
They used a system of canals to water their crops.
The three pyramids at Giza were built during the ____________.
Pharaoh's tombs were ____________ their palaces.
More important than
A person's ___________ body was called the Ka.
Tombs were filled with supplies like ____________ and even pets.
Chairs, weapons, foods.
The largest of the three pyramids was built by ____________.
How did Egypt get it's nickname,"The Gift of the Nile?"
It got it's nickname because the Nile's fertile banks were home to the first Egyptian farmers.
Tombs were filled with supplies for who?
The pyramids was a symbol of power during who's life?
How long did it take to build the Great Pyramid?
During which kingdom did the Egyptians build a strong central government.
What was the symbol of Lower Egypt?
The Red Crown
What was the symbol of Upper Egypt?
The White Crown
How was the soil along the Nile River?
The soil was a moist, fertile valley.
How was the soil in the Sahara?
The soil was dry and barren.
What is the longest river in Africa?
The Nile River.
What river flows South-East across modern Iraq, near the city of Baghdad?
What river is located South-West of the Tigris River and flows South-East to the Persian Gulf?
What chain of mountains is located in the southern part of Turkey?
What mountains range is located east of the Tigris River, in the SW part of Iran?
What desert lies west of the Nile River and is located in Egypt, Libya, and Sudan?
What desert lies in modern Egypt between the Nile River and the Red Sea?
What desert lies west of the Euphrates River and north of the Arabian Peninsula?
What desert lies mostly SOUTH of Egypt between the Nile River and the Red Sea?
What ocean lies east of Africa?
What is the large body of water that separates Africa from Europe?
What sea is south of the Sinai Peninsula and linked to the Indian Ocean?
What body of water lies between the Arabian Peninsula and modern Iraq?
Waht term is used for the northern area of the Nile River, roughly shaped like a triangle?
What triangular area, bordered by water on three sides, connections the continents of Africa and Asia?
What large area of land is bordered on the northeast by the Persian Gulf, on the southeast by the Indian Ocean, and on the west by the Red Sea?
The Nile River flows northward towards the ____________________ Sea.
The Nile River overflows _______ a year.
The ancient Egyptian calendar consisted of twelve months divided into ____ days each. Five extra days were used for _____________ and ____________.
365, Holidays, Feasting
Ancient Egypt was protected from invasion by these geographical features: _______________, ____________________, and _________________.
Mountains, deserts, and water.
What were Egyptian kings called?
What role did the Nile River play in the Development of Egyptian civilization?
It allowed people to farm, settle, and irrigate on the land.
The pharaoh of ancient Egypt was an absolute monarch. How does the power of such a ruler differ from that of a constitutional monarch like Queen Elizabeth of Great Britain?
The ancient Egyptians just made laws when they thought of it. Queen Elizabeth II forms laws off of a constitution.
When did Flood Season last?
From June through September.
Drought Season lasted between what months?
March through May.
What occured June-September
Flood Season- Peasants worked on government projects and buildings.
What occured October-February
Planted crops and dug ditches.
What occured March-May
Harvested the crops.
...Skilled architects, sculptors, and engineers.
The Egyptians created...
...An accurate lunar calendar
The Egyptians noticed...
...The cycles of the moon.
The Egyptians also noticed...
...Sirius, the brightest star in the sky.
...Measure time in a way that almost matched the world's seasons.
The ancient Egyptians wrote...
...The world's oldest scientific document in the early 1500s B.C., that describes common injuries and illnesses, their symptoms, and their treatment.
Ancient Egypt is known for...
Ancient Egyptian tomb paintings...
...Are among the finest achievements of ancient Egypt.
Why was Egypt called "the gift of the Nile"?
because of its fertile banks, which were home to the first Egyptian farmers
What does the Nile river flow into?
In which direction do you travel from Upper Egypt to Lower Egypt?
How did Egypt become a world power in the NEW KINGDOM?
by conquering other nations and building an empire
What were the major accompilshments of the NEW KINGDOM?
kings became known as "pharaos"; built strong armies; expanded trade; conquered land for Egypt; controlled imporant trade routes to other places in Africa by taking control of the rich kingdom of Kush
What items were brought back from Kush to the pharaoh in the NEW KINGDOM?
ebony, elephant ivory, other treasures
Dates of the NEW KINGDOM?
1570 BC to 1070 BC
Dates of the MIDDLE KINGDOM?
2055 BC to 1650 BC
In what 3 areas did Egypt excel during MIDDLE KINGDOM?
literature; art; architecture
What were major achievements during MIDDLE KINGDOM?
Kings stopped building pyramids and started bullding up trade with other parts of world; foreingers began living in Egypt; Foreingers challenged the ruling king and took over lower Egypt; Egypitains fought and defeated foreingers ruling Lower Egypt
Dates of OLD KINGDOM
2686 BC to 2181 BC
What did ancient Egypt accomplish BEFORE the OLD KINGDOM?
learned to irrigate fields; learned to write; formed governments with kings as rulers; invented hieroglyphic writing; created belief system
What were major achievmenets during OLD KINGDOM?
workers built stone pyramids; as Egypt became less angry leaders set up a new King who ruled from southern Thebes; country was divided
What was Egypt like between its periods of strength and discovery?
weak kings; foreingers gained control; confusion; disorder
The ancient Egyptians believed in many gods, which means that their religion was a form of __________.
The northern part of the Nile River where it meets the Mediterranean Sea i sknown as the __________, which is a triangular-shaped, marshy area of land.
In ancient Egypt, the king would rule until he died and then his son or another family member would become king. This kind of line of rulrs from the same family is called a __________.
The ancient Egyptians believed in an __________, which means that when a person died, his or her spirit would have a "life after death" in the Next World.
The ancient Egyptians were highly skilled at __________, which was their way to preserve a dead body by removing the organs and wrapping them in linen.
The ancient Egyptians made sandals, papaer and boats out of the __________ that grew along the Nile.
The king in ancient Egypt was known as the __________ .
Judaism, Christianity and Islam are all examples of __________ because followers of these religions beleive in only one god.
The ancient Egyptian writing system was made up of picture-symbols and was called __________.
At different points along the Nile River, there are steep rapids that form waterfalls. These are known as __________.
The ancient Egyptians built massive, triangular-shaped tombs for the pharaoh. These tombs, called __________, still exist today and are considered a "wonder" from the ancient world.
__________ is the process by which a dead body is treated with preservatives in order to prevent decay.
__________ is a long, thin reed used by the Egyptians to make writing material; paper that is made from the papyrus plant
papyrus (like the card store!)
An __________ is a person skilled in an art; a craftsperson.
Egypt is located on the continent of ______.
The direction the Nile river flows is _______.
In which period were the pyramids built?
In which period was Upper and Lower Egypt united?
In which period did Egypt conquer other lands and build an empire?
Children were important in ancient Egypty. How?
They were at the heart of the family; if couple could not have - they would adopt; children were taught to be kind, honest, and respectful
What is the ancient Egyptian belief "ma'at"?
order and justice; trying to be fair and just at all times
What did you have to do to reach the afterlife?
if your heart was light, having spent a lifetime being kind and honest
What were some rights and responsibilities of women in ancient Egypt?
right to say no if asked to marry; free to get a paying job outside the home if they wanted (they could buy/sell property); right to divorce if she wanted
What were homes made from in ancient Egypt?
sun-dried bricks made of mud and straw (bricks made from brick molds and dried in sun); huge homes
What is the difference between homes of rich and poor?
nobles (rich) had huge villas along Nile (some fronted with white limestone and sparked) with 25-30 rooms... peasants (poor) were tiny but nice (some had 2 stories, people slept on roofs where cooler)
Name four activities that took place at the temples in Egypt
kids went to school htere; women came there every day with offerings of food/goods and chatted; they acted as hotels for visitors; grain was stored there to be shared; people prayed there (ok, that's 5 activities...)
How were schools of ancient Egypt different from today's schools?
they were in temples
What were some of the important jobs in ancient Egypt
soldiers, scribes, artists, peasants.
How did most Egyptians get their jobs?
Most were inherited - if dadda was a Farmer, you'd be!!
Why was being a scribe such an important job in ancient time?
because way back then, everything had to be written down, especially lists; they were in high demand; good ones could work their way up into Pharaoh's court!
How many gods did the ancient Egyptians believe in?
Describe 3 of the gods of ancient Egypt:
Nut: woman whose body arched across the sky wearing a dress with stars (they believed that she swallowed the "sun god" at the end of the day and gave birth to it the next day (get it! sunrise, sunset); Nun: man carrying a bark, the only thing on earth before there was land; Shu: man wearing a headress with feathers, god of air, held up Nut so earth and sky were separated.
Were Egyptians monotheistic or polythesitc?
polytheistic - they prayed to many gods
AT FIRST, who was the only peron allowed to board Ra's boat to the afterlife?
Why was Osiris such an important god?
This god opened the door to the afterlife for EVERYONE (even Sheiler)
What would happen if the Ba and Ka got lost on their way to find the munnified body?
you would disappear and no longer be able to reach your afterlife
Why was grave-robbing considered the most horrible crime in Egypt?
they stole someone's chance to live happily ever after in the land of Two Fields
What was unusual about King Tut?
he was only 9 years old when he becamse Pharaoh - and died at 18.
Why were the artifacts found in King Tut's tomb important to people today?
told archaeologiests and scientists a great deal about ancient Egyptian daily life
What natural barriers protected the Egyptian culture from invaders and allowed it to develop for so many years?
deserts (to the east and west of the Nile) and mountains to the south
Explain some gifts of the Nile
fertile soil for crops; fresh water for drinking, bathing; transportation; bilding materials (cloth, paper)
Explain the two main groups of ancient Egypt and tell where they were located
One lived around mouth of the Nile near Mediterranean Sea, king wore RED crown, this was LOWER EGYPT. Other lived near mountains to South, king wore WHITE crown, this was UPPER EGYPT.
Who united the LOWER and UPPER Egypt groups?
King Menes (also known as King Namer) - he ruled Upper Egypt then conquered Lower Egypt, then he had idea to create the new two-color crown; now it was "The Two Lands" now called Egypt
Describe how 3 inventions were important
pyramids because they provided storage and treasures; papyrus because it made baskets, sandals, mats, rope, paper; and mummification to preserve bodies so one could look their best in the afterlife (oy!)
What is the "book of the dead"?
NOT a book - it's a nickname for bunch of different magic spells to help ancient Egyptians reach their afterlife; about 200 spells were found, most written on papyrus, some written on tomb walls (I wonder if the Wizards of W.P. wrote some? probably not old enough)
Who were important rulers of the New Kindgom?
Hatshepsut (trade) and Thutmose III (conquest)
Describe Pharaoh Hatshepsut
SHE was the half-sister of Thutmose II and sent out trade expeditions that returned with gold, ivory, rare woods, and other valuable items
Describe Pharaoh Thutmose III
succesful military leader; exnteded the empire from Nubia to the Euphrates River, bringing great weath to Egypt
What were some achievements of Egyptians?
architechts, scullptors, engineers, created accurate calendar, oldest document - handbook for surgeons, art
What does this mean: "Egyptian society was highly stratiified"?
That it was divided into rigid social classes.
What is the proper order of the Egyptian Social pyramid?
1-Pharaoh(top)... 2-priests,government officials, viziers.... 3-soldiers.... 4-scribes..... 5-merchants/traders..... 6-artisans/craftspeople.... 7-peasants,farmers,laborers.... 8-slaves(bottom)
believed to be gods, they were powerful, lad complete control, owned the land
in charge of temples, religious rituals, and preparation for the afterlife
Describe governmetn officials, viziers
powerful and wealthy, collected the taxes, distributed the grain
fought for the pharaoh, worked on massive building projects
recorded infomration for government and religious leaders, many years of training
traveled on land and along the rivers to trade for goods and resources needed
carpenters, metalworkers, painters, sculptors, stone carvers, responsible for the tomb paintings and artwork for the pharaoh's pyramid
Describe peasants, farmers, laborers (largest social class)
worked on the land, provided a steady food supply, worked on the pyramids
What ist he Rosetta Stone?
The black rock that French soldiers hit upon when digging in the area near Rosetta in Northern Egypt in 1799; it contained three different styles of writing
Why was Rosetta Stone important?
the writings on it gave clues as to the meaning of hieroglyphs
Why did both the Sumerians (Mesopotamia) and Egyptians need an organized system of writing?
to record trade, farming, and laws
Which civilization (Sumer or Egypt) seemed more interested in learning?
Maybe Egypt because they studies stuff similar to what we do
Which invention of the Sumerians had the biggest impact on Egyptians?
What was a Vizer?
Judge of the high court.