8th Science: Spring Final Exam Review

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Endothermic

Chemical reaction in which energy is absorbed (gets colder).

Exothermic

Chemical reaction in which heat energy is released (gets hotter).

Electron

Negatively charged particle that exists in a cloud around an atom's nucleus.

Proton

Positively charged particle in the nucleus of an atom.

Nucleus

Consists of protons & neutrons. Has a MUCH GREATER mass than the electrons.

Force

A push or pull; has a size and direction.

Period

Horizontal row of elements in the periodic table whose properties change gradually and predictably.

Group

Vertical column of elements in the periodic table that have similar physical or chemical properties.

Reactant

Substance that exists before a chemical reaction begins (on the left in an equation).

Product

Substance that forms as a result of a chemical reaction (the arrow points toward it).

Phenotype

Observable product of genetic makeup and the environment's influence (what you see).

Genotype

Genes that an organism has - its genetic makeup (the actual letters).

Neither created nor destroyed.

The law of conservation of mass states that matter is _______.

Conduction

Transfer of energy from two materials touching.

Convection

Transfer of heat by the flow of material.

Radiation

Energy transferred by waves or rays.

Faster

Light waves travel ___________ than sound waves.

Microscope

What scientific tool is important when you are observing cells?

Weathering & Erosion

What two processes break down rocks, eventually forming sedimentary rocks?

Away

Some scientists believe in the Big Bang Theory because they can see the red shift, which shows galaxies are moving ______ from each other.

Add

When two or more forces are acting on an object in the SAME direction, you ______ them.

Subtract

When two forces are acting on an object in OPPOSITE directions, you ______ them. The larger force will "win", and the object will accelerate in the direction of that force.

Diagonally

If one force is acting on an object in a horizontal direction and another force is acting on the object in a vertical direction, the object will end up being pushed _________.

Radioactive

All atoms have protons, electrons, and a nucleus, but NOT all atoms are ___________.

High melting point

A physical property that allows metals to be heated up a lot without melting.

Decreases

Planting trees __________ the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

Light-year

The distance that light travels in one year.

Chemical

Burning, changing temperature, and giving off bubbles are all indicators of a _________ change.

Sediments

In the rock cycle, igneous rock slowly weathers and erodes, breaking down into ___________.

Convection currents

The force that causes continental plates to move.

Subduction

In plate tectonics, when one plate collides with another and plunges downward.

Sea-floor spreading

Causes new oceanic crust to be formed. Occurs at rifts in the oceans.

Condensation

In the water cycle, this happens when water molecules in the air come together to form clouds.

Precipitation

In the water cycle, this happens when it rains, snows, sleets, or hails.

Evaporation

In the water cycle, this happens when liquid water molecules turn into gas and enter the atmosphere.

Winter

When the Earth's axis is tilted away from the Sun, it is ___________ in the northern hemisphere.

Summer

When the Earth's axis is tilted toward the Sun, it is ___________ in the northern hemisphere.

Average

Weather is day-to-day, but climate is a long-term ________.

Amplitude

The height of a wavelength from the mid-point up to the crest (or down to the trough).

Wavelength

The distance from one crest to the next (or one trough to the next) on a wave.

Crest

The top of a wave.

Trough

The bottom of a wave.

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