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Modern technology has provided us with many time-saving devices, but

we still complain about not having enough time.

In spite of countless time-saving devices—automobiles, telephones, photocopiers, fax machines, and so on—most of us complain about a relative lack of

time.

Modern Western society has made extraordinary technological progress

but social and personal problems seem more prevalent and more prominent than ever before.

According to Schwartz, increased freedom of choice available in modern societies

has contributed to depression and anxiety.

Technology has enabled humankind to exercise unprecedented control over many aspects of the physical world but at the same time has also created serious

environmental problems.

__________________ refers to the idea that technological advances have NOT led to perceptible improvement in our collective health and happiness.

The paradox of progress

Most experts characterize "self-realization" programs (e.g., est training, Silva Mind Control) as

intellectually bankrupt.

While the famous radio talk show host Dr. Laura is a licensed Marriage, Family, and Child Counselor, she holds a doctoral degree in

physiology.

Surveys exploring psychotherapists' opinions of self-help books suggest

there are some excellent books that offer authentic insight and sound advice.

"Psychobabble" is best defined as

ill-defined terminology

Many self-help books

encourage a narcissistic approach to life.

In order to evaluate self-help books for ourselves, we may employ critical thinking. Which of the following is NOT a critical thinking guideline?

Use emotional reasoning.

This text assumes the key to effective adjustment is to

a. take charge of your own life.
b. meet problems head-on.
c. take an active role in improving the quality of your life.

Which of the following are essential guidelines for thinking critically?
1. Define the problem.
2. Avoid emotional reasoning.
3. Analyze biases and assumptions.
4. Use either-or thinking.

c. 1, 2, and 3 only

Which of the following is the best example of "overt" activity?
a. Eating
b. Thinking
c. Dreaming
d. Reasoning

ANS: a

"Any overt response or activity by an organism" defines the term

behavior.

Until the 1950s, psychologists were found almost exclusively in

academic institutions.

The term __________ refers to the psychological processes through which people manage or cope with the demands and challenges of everyday life.

adjustment

The process of adjustment relates to

a. how people deal with stress.
b. behavior in groups.
c. friendship and love

______________ is the premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation.

Empiricism

Which of the following is the basis of empiricism?

a. Correlation
b. Logic
c. Systematic observation
d. Common sense

c. Systematic observation

Compared to other methods of drawing conclusions about behavior, the major advantages of the scientific approach are

clarity and precision; relative intolerance of error.

According to your text, the two main types of research methods in psychology are ______ research methods and ______ research methods.

experimental; correlational

Which of the following best describes correlational research?
a. Exerting experimental control
b. Manipulating an independent variable
c. Manipulating a dependent variable
d. Making systematic observations

d. Making systematic observations

Which of the following correlation coefficients indicates the weakest relationship between two variables?
a. -.36
b. -.97
c. +.75
d. +.15

d. +.15

Correlational research broadens the scope of phenomena beyond experimental research because it

provides a way to investigate variables that cannot be manipulated.

The major disadvantage of correlational research is that it

cannot demonstrate conclusively that two variables are causally related.

The "third variable" problem is associated with

the correlational method.

Empirical surveys consistently find that the vast majority of respondents characterize themselves as

fairly happy.

Which of the following best characterizes the correlation between income and subjective feelings of happiness?

Positive, but weak

Research indicates that

there is no association between IQ and happiness.

Research indicates that
a. married men are happier than married women.
b. married women are happier than married men.
c. both married men and women are happier than unmarried men and women.
d. both unmarried men and women are happier than married men and women.

both married men and women are happier than unmarried men and women.

The authors suggest that we should be careful about drawing conclusions about causes of happiness because

they would be based on correlational data.

An important insight that can be drawn from the research on happiness is that

objective realities are not as important as subjective feelings.

______________ occurs when people shift their own mental scale and change the baseline for comparisons of their own circumstances with those of other people.

Hedonic adaptation

Research indicates that hedonic adaptation

probably helps protect mental and physical health.

When you reward yourself for meeting realistic study goals, you're using the principles of

behavior modification

Most students record ______ of the crucial ideas in a lecture.

c. less than 40%

________________ refers to learning by emphasizing the personal meaningfulness of material that one has learned in a course.

Deep processing

Exercising deep processing means

devoting effort to analyzing the meaning of the reading assignments.

Using "Roy G Biv" to remember the order of colors in the light spectrum is an example of how ______ can help us remember information.

acronyms

Using "Every good boy does fine" to remember the order of musical notes is an example of how ______ can help us remember information.

acrostics

The loci method is a mnemonic device that involves

taking a make-believe walk.

Which of the following ideas lies at the core of the concept of personality?

Consistency across situations

Which of the following ideas is NOT central to the concept of personality?

Traits that are shared with others

Sue's friends say that she is sympathetic, trusting, cooperative, and straightforward. Which of the following "Big Five" traits would best describe her?

Agreeableness

Eric studies three hours per day, five days a week. He only misses school when he is sick and is almost never late for class. On which of the following "Big Five" traits would he likely receive a high score?

Conscientiousness

Which of the following are "Big Five" traits?

a. Neuroticism and intelligence
b. Openness to experience and intelligence
c. Neuroticism and openness to experience
d. Neuroticism, openness to experience, and fortitude

Neuroticism and openness to experience

Research on the Big Five and life outcomes indicates

higher conscientiousness is correlated with higher college grades.

Which of the following statements is NOT true according to Big Five research?
a. Conscientiousness is a positive predictor of longer life.
b. Conscientiousness is a positive predictor of career success.
c. Neuroticism is a positive predictor of career success.
d. Neuroticism is a positive predictor of mental disorders.

c. Neuroticism is a positive predictor of career success.

All psychodynamic theories stem from the work of

Freud.

Which of the following is NOT considered to be a psychodynamic theory of personality?
a. Adler's individual psychology
b. Jung's analytical psychology
c. Freud's theory of psychoanalysis
d. Rogers' client-centered psychology

d. Rogers' client-centered psychology

Psychodynamic theories of personality tend to focus on

unconscious mental processes.

In psychoanalytic theory, the personality component that operates according to the pleasure principle is the

id.

The moral component of personality, according to Freud, is represented by the

superego.

According to Freud, internal conflict among the id, ego, and superego

is routine.

Central to the Freudian conceptualization of personality is

how people cope with their own sexual and aggressive urges

Attributing your own thoughts, feelings, or motives to others to ward off anxiety or guilt is called

projection.

Two months ago, your best friend did not win a major scholarship that she had been counting on to help pay for graduate school. Now she is always fighting with you, her boyfriend, and her roommates. She is most likely using the defense mechanism called

displacement.

In psychoanalytic theory, failure to move forward from one developmental stage to another is called

fixation.

Which of the following is the correct order of Freud's psychosexual stages?

a. Anal, oral, phallic, genital, latency
b. Phallic, anal, oral, latency, genital
c. Oral, genital, phallic, anal, latency
d. Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital

d. Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital

Carl Jung proposed that the unconscious consists of two layers, the ______ and the ______.

personal unconscious; collective unconscious

One idea from Jung's personality theory that has been incorporated into mainstream modern psychology is the notion of

introversion/extraversion.

According to Adler, ______ involves efforts to overcome imagined or real inferiorities by developing one's abilities.

compensation

John is always putting himself down and expressing doubts in his own abilities. According to Adler, John may have a(n)

inferiority complex.

Alfred Adler emphasized the ______ context of personality development.

social

Adler's theory stimulated hundreds of studies on the effect of ________. Although these studies generally failed to find support for their hypotheses, more recent family environment studies focusing on the Big Five traits have found some support.

birth order

Which of the following notions is NOT considered one of the major contributions of psychoanalytic theory?
a. Role of childhood experiences in influencing adult personality
b. Role of internal conflict in generating psychological distress
c. Influence of reinforcement in maintaining specific behaviors
d. Importance of unconscious motivation in influencing behavior

Influence of reinforcement in maintaining specific behaviors

Critics have described the psychodynamic perspective as

biased against females and empirically untestable.

Which of the following individuals is generally recognized for initiating the development of behaviorism?
a. John B. Watson
b. Alfred Adler
c. Albert Bandura
d. Hans Eysenck

John B. Watson

Which of the following is a behaviorist definition of personality?

A collection of response tendencies that arise in various stimulus situations

Which of the following individuals is credited with discovering classical conditioning?

Ivan Pavlov

An originally neutral stimulus that acquires the capacity to elicit a conditioned response is called a(n)

conditioned stimulus.

According to the principles of classical conditioning, the consistent presentation of the CS alone, without the UCS, is likely to lead to which of the following?

Extinction

____________ refers to the process of learning as one experiences the consequences of voluntary actions.

Operant conditioning

Attempting to weaken a response by presenting a noxious or aversive stimulus after that response is called

punishment.

Albert Bandura differed from other behaviorists in that he gave an important role to _________ in influencing human behavior.

cognition

The idea that people are active participants in their learning is the core of

social cognitive theory.

belief about one's ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes is called

self-efficacy.

Behaviorists have provided the most thorough account of why people

are only moderately consistent in their behavior.

One criticism of the behavioral approach in the past is that

cognition is not directly observable behavior.

Humanistic theory emerged in the 1950s as a(n) ______ behavioral and psychodynamic theories.

backlash against

Which of the following individuals based his theory on the importance of the self-concept?
a. Abraham Maslow
b. Carl Rogers
c. Sigmund Freud
d. Hans Eysenck

Carl Rogers

According to Rogers, one's self-concept

may be inaccurate

Daniel feels that he is not living up to his own best image of the person he would like to be. He experiences upset due to a sense of

incongruence.

Rogers emphasized a person's subjective point of view he called

person-centered.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs is based on the idea that

some needs are more basic than others.

Which of the following was NOT described by Maslow as one of the characteristics of a self-actualizing person?
a. Autonomous
b. Problem-centering
c. Self-centered
d. Spontaneous

c. Self-centered

According to Maslow, the self-actualizing person is characterized by
a. spontaneity.
b. freshness of appreciation.
c. peak experiences.
d. all of these.

d. all of these.

Which of the following is one of the significant contributions of humanistic theory?
a. Importance of one's subjective views
b. More attention to psychological health
c. More attention to self-concept
d. All of these are important contributions.

d. All of these are important contributions.

Humanistic theory has been criticized for
a. poor testability of hypotheses.
b. inadequate evidence.
c. an unrealistic view of human nature.
d. all of these.

d. all of these.

Which of the following psychologists said "personality is determined to a large extent by a person's genes"?
a. Hans Eysenck
b. Raymond Cattell
c. Abraham Maslow
d. Albert Bandura

a. Hans Eysenck

Which of the following traits has been of particular interest to Eysenck?

Extraversion-introversion

_____________ is an estimate of the proportion of trait variability within a population that is determined by differences in genetic inheritance.

The heritability ratio

Twin studies discussed in your text suggest that genes account for about ______ of peoples' variation in personality.

50%

Evolutionary psychologists like David Buss have argued that the "Big Five" personality traits exist across a variety of cultures because these traits

have had significant adaptive implications.

Which of the following does the textbook cite as a weakness of biological approaches to personality?

Lack of adequate theory

John molds his interpretation of his past dating to fit how the relationship turned out. This is a common tendency called

hereditary influence.

Brianne likes to explore new experiences and has recently taken up mountain climbing. She is likely to have a high score on Zuckerman's scale to measure

sensation-seeking.

High sensation-seeking is probably a(n) ______ behavior.

maladaptive

One of the chief goals of terror management theory is to explain why people need

self-esteem.

According to terror management theory, cultural worldviews diminish anxiety by

providing answers to universal, existential questions.

According to terror management theory, the increase in patriotism following the terrorist attack in New York on September 11 might be associated with

increasing mortality salience.

It has been theorized that increased awareness of death, called mortality salience, leads people to
a. give larger rewards to people who uphold cultural standards.
b. show respect for cultural icons, such as flags.
c. have harsher penalties to those who break moral cultural traditions.
d. all of these.

d. all of these.

The five-factor model _______________ in non-Western cultures.

applies with some differences

While no single, dominant personality profile has been found in each culture, cross-cultural comparisons have shown

continuity of trait structure.

Cross-cultural research into national character using the five-factor model indicates that

people's beliefs about national character are usually inaccurate stereotypes.

When English language personality scales are translated and administered in other cultures, the Big Five personality traits

usually emerge

______________ test requires people to respond to ambiguous stimuli. Inferences about needs, emotions, and personality traits are drawn from the responses.

A projective

Which of the following is NOT a projective test?
a. Rorschach test
b. Thematic Apperception Test
c. NEO Personality Inventory
d. All of these are projective tests.

c. NEO Personality Inventory

Personality testing conducted on the Internet
a. allows the collection of additional data compared to paper-and-pencil testing.
b. helps reach more isolated clients.
c. costs less than paper-and-pencil testing.
d. all of these.

d. all of these.

Online personality assessments

require special precautions regarding the identity of the respondent.

Whether or not an event is stressful is most likely to depend on

how one appraises and adapts to the event.

Primary appraisal is an initial evaluation of whether an event is

relevant and stressful.

Secondary appraisal involves

evaluating your coping resources and options

_______________ has been a major source of stress in many societies around the world.

Cultural change

Which of the following may be a significant cause of stress for immigrants?

Acculturation

One challenge faced by members of ethnic minorities in dealing with everyday discrimination is that manifestations of such discrimination are often

ambiguous.

Which of the following is NOT a major source of stress described in your textbook?
a. Change
b. Internal conflict
c. Frustration
d. Socialization

d. Socialization

The four major types of stress described in your textbook are

frustration, internal conflict, pressure, and change

Which of the following is a common kind of frustration leading to stress?

Losses

_________ may be a common effect of environmental or ambient stress.

Frustration

Internal conflict occurs when

two incompatible behavioral impulses compete for expression.

Generally, which kind of conflict tends to be the least stressful?

Approach-approach

You want to ask someone for a date, but you are afraid of being rejected. Which of the following types of conflict applies to your situation?

Approach-avoidance

You are a talented artist and good at mathematics. You enjoy both and don't know which to major in at college. Which of the following types of conflict applies to your situation?

Approach-approach

Approach-avoidance conflicts often produce

vacillation.

Research supports a previous theory that internal conflicts generate considerable psychological stress. The theorist who proposed this was

Freud.

Current research indicates that
a. positive change is typically more stressful than negative change.
b. only negative change is stressful.
c. we have little reason to believe that change is inevitably stressful.
d. all change is inevitably stressful.

c. we have little reason to believe that change is inevitably stressful.

Which of the following researchers designed a scale to measure pressure as a form of life stress?
a. Albert Bandura
b. Thomas Holmes
c. Neil Miller
d. Wayne Weiten

d. Wayne Weiten

Weiten's research on the stressful effects of pressure indicates that there is a strong relationship between pressure and

a variety of psychological problems.

Fredrickson et al. (2003) found that the frequency of pleasant emotions correlated __________ with resilience and the frequency of negative emotions correlated ___________ with resilience.

positively; negatively

Research suggests that positive emotional reactions to stress may have the adaptive quality of enhancing

social, intellectual, and physical resources.

Research following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States found that emotions of anger, sad, glad, hopeful, and content were statistically significant in relation to

resilience.

Sometimes, anxiety helps us by motivating us to study for a test, but if we become too anxious, we pass our optimal level of arousal and spend too much time worrying instead of studying. This type of correlation is described as

the inverted-U hypothesis.

Research on the inverted-U hypothesis is

a. in need of refinement.
b. inconsistent.
c. based on animal learning.
d. all of these.

d. all of these.

The "fight-or-flight" response was first described by

Walter Cannon.

The fight-or-flight response occurs in the

sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.

The sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system

mobilizes bodily resources for emergencies.

New research on gender and the fight-or-flight response indicates that

fighting and fleeing may be less adaptive for females because both responses may endanger offspring.

An alternative to the fight-or-flight response that may be present for females is the

tend-and-befriend response.

In humans, the fight-or-flight response is less adaptive than it was in ancestral humans because

most modern human stresses can't be managed with these strategies.

Hans Seyle's work was important because it showed

how prolonged physiological arousal that is meant to be adaptive could lead to diseases.

___________ is credited with formulating the theory of stress reactions called the general adaptation syndrome.

Hans Selye

Selye exposed lab animals to various stressors and found that

patterns of physiological arousal were similar, regardless of the type of stress.

The general adaptation syndrome is a

set of bodily responses to stress.

The correct order of stages in the general adaptation syndrome is
a. resistance, alarm, exhaustion.
b. alarm, exhaustion, resistance.
c. resistance, exhaustion, alarm.
d. alarm, resistance, exhaustion.

d. alarm, resistance, exhaustion.

In the __________ stage of the general adaptation syndrome, the body attempts to adapt to continued stress.

resistance

You hate mathematics and feel a knot forming in your stomach when you read in the college catalog that Calculus I is required for your chosen major. You are in the _____________ stage of the general adaptation syndrome.

alarm

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