Land of Opportunity
America, new people could own land that previously couldn't. New beginnings
1651. Restricting trade (only trade w/ england), England saying what could be traded, where they could trade, and where they could travel
During French and Indian war, when England was too busy to care about colonies. America flourished.
renewed alliance between Iroquois and Americans, it made sure that the alliance was strong.There were reps from Iroquois and 7 of the 13 colonies. It was Englands idea. (uniting all the colonies to work w/ the iroquois)
French and Indian War
1754-1763. War between French and Indians vs. English over the land in America
Albany plan of union
1754. Congress based off of Iroquois system to unite the colonies.
1763. Line down the Appalachian mountains. It was to stop colonies from moving west into Indian territory. (Inhibited expansion of tobacco fields in virginia)
1764. England needed more money because it went into debt from the Fr&Ind. war. taxed colonists. Justification was that it was them paying for protection. replaced the molasses act which placed 3 pence tax on each gallon of molasses
1765. Because of boycott of sugar (sugar act) tax on every paper sold in colonies (newspapers, playing cards, books, etc.) were taxed to support troops
1766. Acts stating parliment still had supreme control over colonies, and could still make laws
1767. Taxes on paper, paint, lead, glass and tea replaced the stamp Act. B.Franklin said the colonists wouldn't mind external taxes so england responded with this. As a result, the colonists boycotted all these products
Mob of colonists assaulted british soldiers, soldier's gun accidentally discharged, other soldiers fired. 5 people were killed in the mob
Boston Tea party
The british gave the right to sell all the tea to the Americas to the British East India company. their prices were so low that all the colonists selling illegal tea would soon go out of business. The sons of liberty got together and threw tea into the harbor dressed up as indians
Happened because of the boston tea party. A series of Acts by the British to punish bostonians (i.e. closing their port, banning town meetings.)
1774. Act that was meant to organize the colonies, but instead just cut off western land claims of Massachusetts, Connecticut, Virginia, and New York. Within the cut-off area, a government was set up with no representative assembly and favored the Catholic church.
Taxation without rep
Americans had no say in parliment but were still taxed, British respected this phrase. Colonists didn't believe they were represented, it became the theme and war cry of the Revolution
First Continental Congress
1774. 12 colonies (not RI) gathered in Pennsylvania because they wanted to boycott British products. The non-importation agreement came out of it.
1774. ceased all trade with Britain. Committees in every count and town enforced the agreement. It came out of the first continental congress
Battle of Lexington and Concord
1775. British sent troops to Concord because they heard that colonists were gathering supplies. Paul Revere and William Dawes rode to warn colonists. 70 men gathered at Lexington 8 were killed 10 were wounded. Then, the countryside sprang to arms, and defeated British
Second Continental Congress
May, 1775. 12 delegates (except Georgia which came late) gathered in Pennsylvania. Drew up Continental Army. No USA yet. Realized they would need a navy and made their own letters of marque (legally licensced pirate)
Battle of Bunker Hill
June 16, 1775. Men from NH, CT, RI, and MA met in Boston after the battle of Lexington and Concord. Men under Colonol William Prescott went to fortify Bunker Hill, instead they fortified breed's hill. Next day, the British attacked. They were driven away twice with great losses, but in the end the colonists surrendered because they ran out of gunpowder. It was considered a moral victory although they lost. British lost 1,000 men, more then twice the amount of the colonials. 1/8 of all the british killed in the Revolution were killed that day
Olive Branch Petition
1775,sent to King George. It asked the king to stop parliament from enslaving them. King refused the petition.
January 15,1776 Common Sense published. Written by Thomas Paine.It stated that it was common sense to rebel against King George. America should break all ties with Britain. It sold over 100,000 copies
Declaration of Independence
July 2, 1776. Listed all the points of why the Americans were breaking off from Britain. Thomas Jefferson wrote it. had preamble, and list of abuses. Approved on July 4, 1776. 56 people signed it.
Articles of Confederation
Outlined rules for firm league of friendship. states all joined together in treaty
1786. Meeting that spurred the Constitutional Convention, the idea of Alexander Hamilton. Delegates met to discuss the economic trouble and lack of government throughout the states.
Scheduled for May 14, 1787, May 25th before all the delegates showed up. in the end there were 55 delegates. Where the Constitution was written. Virginia Plan, New Jersey Plan, and 3/5 compromise all proposed here
Issue discussed at the constitutional convention (va plan and nj plan). argument whether number of representatives should be based off population or a set number by state
The plan written by James Madison. It said that there would be three branches of government. Legislative, executive, and judicial. There would be two houses in legislature with both based off of population. Presented by Edmund Randolph
New Jersey Plan
Written by William Patterson, stating there would be one legislative house with each state having an equal vote. Presented at the constitutional convention
The Great compromise/Connecticut Compromise
Plan proposed by Roger Sherman, William Samuel Johnson, and Oliver Ellsworth that suggested combining the Virginia and New Jersey plans. There would be two houses, one house having representation based off of population, the other having representation based off of the state. Also included the three branches of government.
Plan stating that each slave would count for 3/5 of a person for taxation and representation purposes
Legislative branch of Gov.
legislative branch-Branch of government that includes the two houses of Congress: The House of Representatives and the Senate. Its powers were to pass laws, declare war, enact texes, etc. House of Reps was in charge of passing bills to raise money. Senate was in charge of approving treaties and setting up appointments.
Executive branch of gov.
Branch of government that includes the President, Vice President, and the Cabinet. President's powers are to control armed forces, negotiate treaties, and choose officials. Most everything had to be approved.
Judicial branch of gov.
Branch of government that mainly consists of the Supreme Court. Its powers are to make sure everything done is just concerning the Constitution.
Checks and balances
system that each branch wouldn't be able to gain too much power. Each had the power to stop the other (i.e. president had veto power etc..)
Document written 1787 at the Constitutional Convention. Lay ground rules, and set up government. Still left room for change though, which is why it has lasted so long. Pretty simple
The colonists bought slaves from England, and sent them to the Carribean. The slaves then made sugar, which was then sent to the Americans and made into rum.Then the rum was sent to England, which they then sent to Africa and traded for more slaves
He failed as a lawyer and businessman, but flourished during the Revolution and the period before it. He organized the Committees of Correspondance. He also started the Sons of Liberty. He was good at using propoganda (boston massacre) and was called the "Father of the Revolution"
Committees of Correspondence
1772. The committees of Correspondence were separate committees in each state which helped spread the word, and communicated with each other. It was founded by Samuel Adams, and it talked about Britain's many violations. In 1773 it became one big committee
Sons of Liberty
The sons of liberty were started by Samuel Adams. It was a group that was greatly opposed to the British. They started the boston tea party. They helped work toward independence by defying the british and spreading propoganda. It was for wealthy, high class men
Successful massachusetts lawyer, who gradually came to support the radical, patriotic ideas of his cousin Samuel Adams. Great debaters, and one of the leaders of the Continental Congress. Believed that everyone was entitled to justice, and defended the british soldiers after the boston massacre
East India Company
East India Company was a British tea company. They went broke, and britain sold them the rights to sell all the tea to the Americans. This sparked the boston tea party
Was a skilled silversmith who was an early opponent of the british. He made a propoganda engraving for Samuel Adams of the Boston Massacre. He helped plan and execute the boston tea party, and carried messages to various rebel groups. He's famous for his midnight ride to Lexington and Concord in 1775. But was captured before he reached Concord
He was one of the midnight riders to lexington and concord but was not as famous as Paul revere.
Wa the commander of the Virginia militia during the french and indian war. not very successful in battle, but earned respect for trying. He was the commander in chief of the Revolution. Inspired the tired soldiers of the Continental Army, although often defeated he forced the british to spend large sums of money on the war, and then eventually surrender. Later, he was the president of the Constitutional Convention, and became the first president of the US.
A tory was someone who supported/allied with the British during the time of the Revolution
A patriot was someone who was against the British. They believed in Independence during the Revolution
A federalist was someone who believed in the Constitution/having one supreme government. In truth, they were actually nationalists.
an anti-federalist was someone who didn't believe in the constitution/wanted each state to have their own government. They considered themselves the true federalists
Men in each town, who were able to be ready at a minutes notice. Colonial militiamen, during the revolution they were there to protect their town
best educated men of his time. Heir to many slaves. he was a lawyer, statesman, scientist, landscape artist, and architect. He became a leading voice of the revolution. Served on the continental congress, and principal author of the Declaration of Independence. governor of Virginia, minister to France, Secretary of State, VP, and 3rd president of the US.
King George III
He was king during the revolution, and placed many Acts on the colonists. And caused them to revolt.
highly respected scientist, one of the wealthiest men in Pennsylvania. helped found UPENN, served as agent in london, and Pennsylvania, became convinced the colonies needed to revolt. served as ambassador to france during the war, helped write the declaration of independence, constitution, and helped negotiate the peace treaty ending the revolution
supreme power over especially over a body political, freedom from external control
He attended the Annapolis Meeting, and was the one who decided that everyone should go to the constitutional convention. He helped start it, and it was his idea
James Madison wrote the Virginia Plan and was for representation by population. He attended the Constitutional convention.
Edmund randolph presented the virginia plan, and also attended the constitutional convention
one of the wealthiest men in the colonies. inherited large trading business. first accepted british tax policies, but became a fervent opponent of the Stamp Act. hancock became an ally of Samuel Adams, british intended to arrest them but they were warned by Paul Revere, and William Dawes. served as president of 1st and 2nd continental congress.and was the first person to sign the declaration of independence. served 9 terms as the massachusets governor
Charles C. Pinckney
He was from South Carolina and was an advocate for slavery. He was an attendee of the constitutoional convention
son of a connecticut farmer. Oliver ellsworth was a lawyer. He attended the constitutional convention and was a nationalist. He helped to write the connecticut compromise
from Connecticut. son of a shoemaker. was also a farmer, lawyer, and signer of the declaration of independence. also helped to draw up the articles of confederation. He was an attendee of the constitutional convention and wrote the connecticut compromise
attendee of the constitutional convention. Born in Ireland. he lived in connecticut and new jersey. practiced law. and was attorney general for new jersey. opposed national government.He wrote the new jersey plan.