Terrorism Background Paper

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Terrorism

use of threat against civilians or properties, on behalf of individuals or organized groups not assigned to states
goal: obtain power by illicit means

Purpose of Terrorism

-religious
-political
-cultural

International Terrorism

-most complicated form of violence
-battleground extends beyond conflicted regions
-affect sovereignty of countries

Sovereignty

faculty each state owns to exert its power on its system of government, its territory, and its population

Intl. Terrorism Principal Characteristics

-indiscriminate violence against civilians
-element of surprise
-creates terror and paralyzes action
-unnecessary suffering
-target most vulnerable areas
-cruelty against innocent hostages
-false nationalism

October 2, 2001

terrorism first defined by United Nations at General Assembly

Resolution 1373

-create Counter Terrorism Committee
-criminalize people/companies financing terrorists
-freeze funds
-deny financial aid to terrorist groups
-government sharer information

Resolution 1624

-prohibit by law terrorist acts
-cooperation international boarders security
-make effort to prevent discrimination of religions

General PV

-organizations create ways to act against terrorism
-reinforce boarders
-Main Challenge: deal with terrorism without invading sovereignty of others

USA PV

method of action against terrorism: invade sovereignty of others

Iraq PV

-problems regarding sovereignty
-invaded by USA

Pakistan PV

-pakistan difficulty combating terrorism
-invaded by USA: damaged relation

India PV

integrity and sovereignty challanged

Darfur CS

-government of Sudan vs. Arab Janjaweed Militia
-local violence by ethnic and economic
-government responded, created terror
-terrorists attack government objectives
-sudanese government did not allow global cooperation

Columbia CS

-FARC
-terrorist group originally military wing for communist party
-wealthy: receiving arms by selling cocaine and heroin
-operate mainly in Columbia as well as Venezuela, Ecuador and Panama
-bombings, murder, mortar attacks, kidnappings, extortion, hijacking, guerrilla and conventional military action against columbia
-tried negotiations: reduced attacks for a short period of time

Ireland CS

-IRA divided into PIRA to expel UK from northern Ireland
-believe violence key to free Ireland
-bombings, assassinations, kidnappings, punshiment beatings, extortion smuggling, and robberies
-cease fire brought end

Spain CS

-ETA (terrorist group)
-revolutionary marxist group: independence basque region of spain
-March 2004 attacks on commuter trains.. blamed ETA.. Al Qaeda responsible

USA CS

-9/11 terrorist attacks (Al Qaeda)
-USA respond "war on terror" invaded Afghanistan
-Al Qaeda most powerful terrorist group

Afghanistan CS

-Al Qaeda: rid Muslim countries of Western influence and replace their governments with fundamentalist Islamic rule

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