A sworn, written statement of the information known to an officer that serves as the basis for the issuance of an arrest warrant or a search warrant.
The process of taking a person into legal custody to answer a criminal charge.
A judicial order commanding that a particular person be arrested and brought before a court to answer to a criminal charge.
The act of formally asserting that a particular person is to be prosecuted for a crime.
A temporary and limited interference with a person's freedom for investigative purposes. Also called investigative detention, street stop, and field interrogation.
Due Process Clause
The title of clauses appearing in both the Fifth and Fourteenth amendments to the Constitution of the United States.
An exception to the requirements that law enforcement officers have a search warrant; occurs when there is a compelling need for official action and there is no time to get a warrant.
Fruits of the Poisonous Tree Doctrine
Procedural Criminal Law
That branch of criminal law that defines what can and cannot be done with, or to, people.
A condition in which an officer has suspicion about an individual and knowledge of facts and circumstances that would lead a reasonable person to believe that a crime has been, is being, or is about to be, committed.
The process of looking for evidence of a crime.
Search and Seizure
The process of looking for evidence of a crime and taking that evidence into the custody of a law enforcement agency.
Written authorization by a judge allowing officers to look for specified items of evidence of a crime in a specified place.
Stop and Frisk
A limited pat down of the outer clothing of a person encountered by law enforcement officer when the person is acting suspiciously, and the officer, concerned about safety, seeks to determine if the person has a weapon.
Substantive Criminal Law
That branch of criminal law dealing with the elements that describe and define a crime.