Countries dependent upon and dominated by the Soviet Union. (Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Poland.
the blocking of another nation's attempts to spread its influence, especially the efforts of the US to block the spread of Soviet influence during the late 1940s and early 1950s.
A US policy announced by President Harry Truman in 1947, of providing economic and military aid to free nations threatened by internal or external opponents.
The program proposed by Secretary of State George Marshall in 1947, under which the US supplied economic aid to European nations to help them rebuild after WWII.
A 327-day operation in which US and British planes flew food and supplies into West Berlin after the Soviets blockaded the city in 1948.
In response to Berlin blockade, defensive Military alliance, all member countries promised that an attack on one would be regarded as an attack on all.
Communist leader in the north
Nationalists under China's president in the south. Corrupt and abusive practices drove peasants to Communist side, and he fled.
- Island to the east of mainland China, where Chiang and his government and army fled.
A conflict between North Korea and South Korea lasting from 1950 to 1953, in which the US along with other UN countries fought on the South and China fought on the North.
Developed from a congressional committee created to search out disloyalty before WWII, agency investigating possible Communist influence inside and outside the US.
In response to the hearings; a list of people whom they in effect condemned for having a Communist background. Approx 500 actors, writers, producers, and directors.
Accused of spying for the Soviet Union, lied for passing documents, send to jail. Later, Soviet cables proved his guilt.
Charged communists were taking over the government.
Attacks on suspected communists in the early 1950s. Now referred to the unfair tactic of accusing people of disloyalty without providing evidence.
A military alliance formed in 1955 by the Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellites.
Commitment to defend the Middle East against attack by any Communist country.
Small residential communities surrounding cities. Offered by Levitt for less than $8,000 in response to the housing crisis.
Southern Delegates to the national convention, opposed civil rights and sought to protect the Southern way of life against interference of federal government.
An extension of Roosevelt's New Deal, included proposals for a nationwide system of compulsory health insurance and a crop-subsidy system to provide a steady income for farmers.
Major corporation; includes a number of smaller companies in unrelated industries
A company that offers similar products or services in many locations
Unprecedented population explosions between 1946 and 1964.
Dr. Jonas Salk
Developed a vaccine for the crippling disease poliomyelitis.
Dr. Benjamin Spock
Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care; mothers to be at home.
The designing of products to wear out or to become outdated quickly so that people will feel a need to replace their possessions frequently.
means of communication that reach large audiences.
Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
Government agency that regulates and licenses television, telephone, telegraph, radio, and other communications industries
A social and artistic movement of the 1950s, stressing unrestrained literary self-expression and nonconformity with the mainstream culture.
One of the unconventional, nonmaterialistic followers of the beat movement of the 1950s.
Rock 'n' Roll
Form of popular music, characterized by heavy rhythms and simple melodies that developed from rhythm and blues during the 1950s.
The tearing down and replacing of buildings in rundown inner-city neighborhoods.
Hired hands, Mexican, allowed into US to harvest crops
The US government's plan, announced 1953, to give up responsibility for Native American tribes by eliminating federal economic support, discontinuing the reservation system, and redistributing tribal lands.
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 case in which the Supreme Court rules that "separate but equal" education for black and white student was unconstitutional.
Seamstress and an NAACP officer who took a seat in the front row of the colored section of a Montgomery bus. When asked to move, she refused, and her arrest soon spread around.
Dr. MLK Jr.
Pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, elected to lead the Montgomery Improvement Association to organize a boycott
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
An organization formed in 1960 to coordinate sit-ins and other protests and to give young blacks a larger role in the civil rigs movement
One of the civil rights activists who rode buses through the South in the early 1960s to challenge segregation.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
A law that banned discrimination on the basis of race, sex, national origin, or religion in public places and most workplaces.
Fannie Lou Hamer
Daughter of Mississippi sharecroppers, won the honor of speaking for the MFDP at the convention. Registered to vote at cost of beating and family's eviction for their farm.
De Facto Segregation
Racial separation established by practice and custom, not by law.
While in prison, studied Elijah Muhammad, head of Nation of Islam, or Black muslims. and after his release from prison in 1952, became a minister of the Islamic religion, and was an engaging speaker.
A slogan - first used in the 1940s and revived by Stokely Carmichael in the 1960s - that encouraged African-American pride and political and social leadership
Ho Chi Minh
Condemned by the French to death in 1930 for his rebellious activity. Fled Vietnam that year and throughout the 1930s, he orchestrated Vietname's growing independence movement from exile in the Soviet Union and later from China.
An organization of Vietnamese Communists and other nationalist groups that between 1946 and 1954 fought for Vietnamese independence from the French.
the idea that if a nation falls under Communist control, nearby nations will also fall under Communist control.
Dien Bien Phu
Vietminh overran the French outpost at Dien Bien Phu.
a 1954 peace agreement that divided Vietnam into Communist-controlled North Vietnam and non-Communist South Vietnam until unification elections could be held in 1956
Ngo Dinh Diem
a strong anti-Communist, refused to take part in the countrywide election of 1956
Communist opposition group in the South, began attacks on Diem government, killing thousands of officials. Later called National Liberation Front (NLF).
Ho Chi Minh Trail
Ho Chi Minh began supplying arms to the Vietcong via a network of paths along the border of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
a resolution adopted by Congress in 1964, giving the president broad powers to wage war in Vietnam.
A gasoline-based bomb that set fire to the jungle.
Search and Destroy Missions
a US military raid on a South Vietnamese village, intended to root out villagers with ties to the Vietcong, but often resulting in the destruction of the village and the displacement of its inhabitants.
a public distrust of statements made by the government
a leaf-killing toxic chemical that devastated landscapes.
youth-dominated political movement of the 1960s
a massive surprise attack by the Vietcong on South Vietnamese towns and cities.
Nixon's strategy for ending US involvement in war: gradual withdrawal of US troops and their replacement with South Vietnamese forces.
a name given by Nixon to moderate, mainstream Americans who quietly supported his Vietnam war policies.
7,000 page document - leaked to press by former Defense Department worker
president's advisor for national security affairs; Nixon's top negotiator in Vietnam
Communist group that seized power in Cambodia in 1975
War Powers Act
a law enacted in 1973, limiting a president's right to send troops into battle without consulting congress.
Nixon's program to turn over part of federal govt. power to state/local govts.
the distribution of federal money to state and local governments with few or no restrictions on how it is spent.
Family Assistance Plan
a welfare-reform proposal approved by the House of Representatives in 1970 but defeated in the Senate; that would have guaranteed an income to welfare recipients who agreed to undergo job training and to accept work.
Nixon's attempt to attract the support of Southern conservative Democrats who were unhappy with federal desegregation policies and liberal Supreme Court.
An economic condition marked by both inflation and high unemployment.
an organization of petroleum exporting countries - an economic association of oil-producing nations that is able to set oil prices.
the flexible policy, involving a willingness to negotiate and an easing of tensions, that was adopted by Nixon and is adviser Kissinger in their dealings with Communist nations.
which was advocated by Henry Kissinger in the Nixon admin that involves dealing with other nations in a practical and flexible way rather than according to a rigid policy.
Salt I Treaty
a five-year agreement between the US and USSR signed in 1972, that limited the nations' number of intercontinental ballistic missiles and submarine-launched missiles.
a scandal arising from the Nixon admin.'s attempt to cover up its involvement in the 1972 break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in the Watergate apartment
Committee to Reelect the President
an organization formed to run Nixon's 1972 reelection campaign, which was linked to the Watergate scandal.
Saturday Night Massacre
a name given to the resignation of the US attorney general and the firing of his deputy in October 1973, after they refused to carry out Nixon's order to fire the special prosecutor investigating the Watergate affair.
National Energy Act
a law enacted during Carter admin, established a tax on gas-guzzling cars, removed price controls on US oil and natural gas, and provided tax credits for development of alternative energy sources.
rights and freedoms, such as those named in the Declaration of Independence and Bill of Rights, which all people are entitled.
Camp David Accords
two historic agreements between Israel and Egypt, reached in negotiations at Camp David in 1978.
- person who works to protect the environment from destruction and pollution
Environmental Protection Agency
an agency est. in 1970 to enforce pollution standards, to conduct environmental research, and to assist state and local govts in pollution control.
a government program, such as social security, Medicare, or Medicaid, that guarantees and provides benefits to a specific group.
a late 20th century alliance of conservative special-interest groups concerned with cultural, social, and oral issues.
an unfair treatment of members of a majority group.
alliance of right-wing groups opposed to big government, entitlement programs, affirmative action the busing of students to achieve integration, and the suppose moral decline of the US population.
A political alliance of religious groups, consisting mainly of evangelical and fundamentalist Christians, that was active in the '70s and 80s, condemning liberal attitudes and behavior and raising money for conservative candidates
The idea that a reduction of tax rates will lead to increases in jobs, savings, and investments, therefore to an increase in government revenue.
Strategic Defense Initiative
A proposed defense system, intended to protect the United States against missile attacks. (AKA Star Wars)
The economic policies of President Reagan, which were focused on the granting of large tax cuts in order to increase private investment
a situation in which a country imports more goods than it exports.
disease (virus) that weakens immune system, makes body prone to infections/cancer.
basing of employee's salary on the requirements of his job rather than traditional pay scales that have frequently provided women with smaller incomes than men.
a policy that seeks to correct the effects of past discrimination by favoring the groups who were previously disadvantaged.
Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, 1987 agreement between US and USSR that eliminated some weapons systems & allowed for on-site inspection of military installations.
the open discussion of social problems that was permitted in the USSR in the 1980s.
The restructuring of the economy and the government instituted in the USSR
Commonwealth of Independent States
a loose confederation of former USSA states established after the dissolution of the USSR in 1991.
Belonging to the leftist group that overthrew the Nicaraguan government in 1979.
Nicaraguan rebels who received assistance for the Reagan Admin in their efforts to overthrow the sandinista Government in the 1980s.
the sit of 1989 demonstrations in Beijing, China, in which Chinese students demanded freedom of speech and a greater voice in government.
Operation Desert Storm
a 1991 military operation in which UN forces, led by the US, drove iraqi invaders from Kuwait..
secretary of the communist party in Soviet Union; peace talks with US.
Three Mile Island
Nuclear Power Plant in Harrisburg, Penn. which failed, causing radiation to be admitted in the air
a policy developed during the Kennedy Administration that involved preparing for a variety of military responses to international crisis rather than focusing on the use of nuclear weapons.
revolutionary leader in Cuba.
a communication link established in 1963 to allow the leaders of the US and USSR to contact each other in times of crisis.
Limited Test Ban Treaty
a 1963 treaty in which the US and USSR agreed not to conduct nuclear-weapons tests in the atmosphere.
JFK's legislative program, included proposals to provide medical care for the elderly, to rebuild blighted urban areas, o aid education, to bolster the national defense, to increase international aid, and to expand the space program.
the authority to act that an elected official receives from the voters who elected him or her.
an agency est. in 1961 to provide volunteer assistance to developing nations in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
Alliance for Progress
US foreign-aid program of 1960s, providing economic and technical assistance to Latin American countries.
a group headed by Warren that investigated assassination of JFK and concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald was alone responsible.
Economic Opportunity Act
law enacted in 1964 that provided funds for youth programs antipoverty measures, small-business loans, and job training.
1965, hospital insurance and low-cost medical insurance to Americans aged 65+
1965, health insurance to people on welfare.
Immigration Act of 1965
a law that made it easier for non-European Immigrants to settle in the US
Supreme Court when Warren was chief justice, noted for its activism in areas of civil rights and free speech.
the redrawing of election districts to reflect changes in population.
right to remain silent and right to consult an attorney. Every accused person must be informed of this at time of their arrest.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
organization formed in 1957 by MLK and other leaders to work for civil rights through nonviolent means.
form of demonstration used by African Americans
1964 project to register African Americans voters in Mississippi
Voting Rights Act of 1965
law that made it easier for A.A. to register to vote by eliminating discriminatory literary tests and authorizing federal examiners to enroll voters denied at the local level.
De jure Segregation
racial separation established by law.
Nation of Islam
a religious group, popularly known as the Black Muslims, founded by Elijah Muhammad to promote black separatism and the Islamic religion.
a militant A.A. political organization formed in 1966 by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale to fight police brutality and to provide services in the ghetto.
Civil Rights Act of 1968
law that banned discrimination in housing.
Students for a Democratic Party
antiestablishment New Left group, 1960, called for greater individual freedom and responsibility.
Free Speech Movement
antiestablishment New Left organization in a 1964 clash between student and administrators at UC Berkeley.
ran against Johnson (platform to end war).
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
muslim religious leader, led rebels in overthrowing shah (King).