Bio 112 Lab Chapt 4-5

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Excavata

excavates

Chromalveolata

alveolates and heterokonts

Rhizaria

cercozoa

Archaeplastidia

red algae, green algae, plants

Unikonta

opisthokonts and amoebozoa

First eukaryotic organisms to obtain plastids via endosymbiosis

Archaeplastidia

Red algae

red plastid incorporated into diatoms, dinoflagellates, and coccolithophores via secondary endosymbiosis

Viridiplantae ("green plants")

chlorophyta and streptophyta

Archaeplastidia evolutionary trends

cellulose cell wall with sporopollenin coating
apical meristems
reproductive modifications
dominant sporophyte phase
vascular tissue
pollen and seeds
flowers and fruits

Chlorophyta- prasinophytes

relatively primitive forms
motile, marine phytoplankton
most similar to ancestor of all green plants

What type(s) of reproduction is/are used by chlorophyta

asexual and sexual

Subsets of Chlorophyta

Chlamydomonas, volvox, ulva

Streptophyta include...

charophyta and embryophyta

Characteristics of streptophyta

similar shape to flagellated sperm
phragmoplast forms during cell division
pre adapted for life on land
peroxisome enzymes
sporopollenin

Charophyta

derived green algae, similar to Embryophytes

Embryophyta Characteristics

land plants
alternation of generations
apical meristems
multicellular gametangia
walled spores in sporangia

Tracheophytes

vascular plants

sporophyte

diploid form of plant

sporangium

spore-forming structure

spores

haploid reproductive unit which becomes gametophyte

gametophyte

haploid form of plant

dioecious

separate male and female plants

monoecious

male and female parts on same plant

gametes

haploid reproductive unit which combines with another gamete to form a sporophyte

fertilization

union of egg and sperm to create zygote

zygote

single diploid cell formed by fertilization

embryo

developing diploid organism dependent on gametophyte

Hepaticophyta

liverworts

Bryophyta

mosses

Characteristics of Tracheophyta

Spermatopsids
life cycle with dominant sporophytes
vascular tissue
roots
leaves
sporophylls

Nonseed plants

lycopsids and pterophytes

Spermatopsida- the seed plants Characteristics

Gymnosperms and angiosperms
reduced gametophytes
heterospory
ovules
pollen
seeds

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