The principle of noninjury, nonviolence, and respect for all life JAINISM
Subsidiary scriptural writings containing commentaries and eulogic works praising Jain leaders and saints, as well as the Great Renunciation and Enlightenment of Mahavira; accepted by Svetambara Jains JAINISM
Literally, "limbs"; the central scriptures of Svetambara Jainism JAINISM
Means "sky-clad" and refers to those Jain monks who wander naked JAINISM
Violence or injury to life JAINISM
A "conqueror" or victor; one who has attained enlightenment or infinite insight. This word is the root from which the word Jainism is derived. It may also be used as a synonym for tirthankara JAINISM
The spirit contained within all living things, be they human, animal, or plant.
The substance that contaminates a person's soul as the consequence of evil deeds, causing the soul to sink in the universe and on the scale of existance.
Enlightenment which involves the gaining of infinite knowledge
The title (and name) of the founder of Jainism, meaning "great one"; also know as Vardhamana
A human soul
another name for Mahavira found in Buddhist literature
a village near the site of Mahavira's death; one of the most holy places to Jains and hence the goal of pilgrimages
a Jain monk
The sole body of Digambara Jain scripture
In Jain mythology, the first cow; considered to be one of the original treasures to appear on earth
Mean "white-clad" and refers to those Jain monks wear a white robe or loincloth
Means "ford-finder". Mahavira is considered the twenty-fourth and last "ford-finder" of this aeon. He, like the previous ones, found the way to gain release from the wheel and has shown this way to others.
refraining from destroying life
Arhat (S); Lohan (C); Rakan (J)
A disciple of the Buddha; a saint or monk; may also have the narrower meaning of one who is close to enlightenment, or even one who is enlightened
Fig tree; in Buddhism, symbolic of enlightenment, because that is where the Buddha was enlightened
A mandala upon which is written a mantra embodying the central place of the Lotus Sutra in the Nichiren tradition
Dhyana (S); Jhana (P); Ch'an (C); Zen (J); Son (K)
A meditation sect that spread to China in the sixth century c.e. with Bodhidharma
Eightfold Middle Path
The method taught by the Buddha for moral and intellectual self-development leading to the enlightenment. The eight constituent parts are: (1) right views; (2) right thought; (3) right speech; (4) right action; (5) right livelihood; (6) right effort; (7) right mindfulness; and (8) right concentration
Four Noble Truths
The basic content of the Buddha's enlightenment that he set forth in his first sermon. The four truths are: (1) life is painful; (2) the cause of suffering is egoistic desire; (3) the elimination of desire brings the cessation of suffering; and (4) the way to the elimination of desire is the Eightfold Middle Path
"Other lives" or "birth stories"; tales purportedly told by the Buddha of his previous lives as bird, animal, and human being. They were remembered and recorded by his followers not long after his death and are 547 in number. The theme throughout the stories is the line of life that possesses the spiritual qualities that will blossom into buddhahood.
The form of Japanese Buddhism, known as "True Pure Land," that teaches devotion to Amida (Amitabha) as a compassionate lord
The law of cause and effect. The root meaning is "action", and the derived meaning thus becomes "action and the appropriate result of action." Applied to the moral sphere, karma is the Law of Ethical Causation through the operation of which a man "reaps what he sows." Karma does not, in itself, bind to the wheel of rebirth. The binding element is personal desire for the fruit of action. Liberation is therefore achieved by elimination of desire for self.
Riddles, unsolvable by rational thought, designed to promote enlightenment in Soto Zen students
In Nichiren thought, world peace in the broad sense of universal harmony in nature and human relations
Flower symbolizing the female principle and self-creation, because out of the procreative powers of water it vegetates from its own matrix or womb without being fostered in earth. Every buddha or bodhisattva is supported by a lotus flower to indicate divine birth.
the central scripture of the Nichiren tradition, among other Buddhist sects
The buddha-to-be prophesied in Mahayana Buddhism
a ritual or magic circle; in Tibet, a diagram used in invocations, meditations, and temple services
chant used in meditation and other spiritual disciplines to draw the worshipper closer to the ultimate
Founder of Nichiren Shoshu Buddhism, known as Nichiren Shoshu of America in the United States
A Buddhist movement dedicated to helping its adherents achieve the highest state of life, or buddha-nature, through chanting the Lotus Sutra
Release from the limitations of existence and of reincarnation; the supreme goal fo the Buddhist endeavor, attainable in this life by right aspiration, purity of life, and the elimination of egoism, The Theravada school tends to view nirvana as an escape from life y overcoming its attractions; the Mahayana views it as the fruition of life, the unfolding of the infinite possibilities of the innate buddha-nature, and exalts the saint who remains in touch with life rather than the saint who relinquishes all connection with it
a form of Tibetan Buddhism teaching that human beings are energy and through meditation, yoga, and prayer can learn how to expend energy wisely. Their monks are known as Red Hat lamas.
The founder of Nyingmapa Tibetan Buddhism (8th century c.e.)
the zen buddhist school that regards enlightenment as a sudden epiphany
a teacher of Zen Buddhism
The Buddhist order of monks founded by the Buddha himself
(1175-1262) The founder of Jodo Shinsu Buddhism
The Grand Main Temple of Nichiren Shoshu, where the Dai-Gohonzon is housed
the Zen Buddhist school the believes enlightenment to be a gradual acquirement
a mound of earth or brick in which the bodies or ashes of prominent persons were deposited. The name stupa was usually reserved for those structures containing relics of the Buddha or of arhats; otherwise they were called dagobas
Sutra (S); Ching (C); Kyo (J); Kyong (K)
A thread or string on which jewels are strung; applied to that part of the Palin canon containing the dialogues or discourses of the Buddha
Tripitaka (S); Da-Tsang-Ching (C); Daizokyo (J): Daichang-Kyong (K)
The foundational scriptures of Theravada Buddhism. The word Tripitaka means "three baskets" and reflects the three major divisions of Pali canon. The first division contains the rules for the Sangha, the second the teachings of the Buddha, and the third esoteric knowledge.
means "vehicle of the thunderbolt." Especially in the tantric form of Buddhism, which is found in conjunction with Vajrayana, the thunderbolt becomes the symbol of the male sexual member. The representation of vajra on the lotus symbolized the union of masculine and feminine, or knowledge and principles
a form of Mahayana Buddhism that seeks enlightenment through meditation. Two of several schools are Rinzai and Soto