Any pattern of emotions, behaviors, or thoughts inappropriate to the situation and leading to personal distress or the inability to achieve important goals.
False sensory experiences that may suggest mental disorder; may have other causes, such as drugs or sensory isolation.
-Hearing non-existent noises
Extreme disorders of thinking, involving persistent false beliefs; hallmark of paranoid disorders.
-Thinking someone is out to get you
A term referring to emotion or mood.
-depressed, anxious, maniac
The view that mental disorders are diseases that, like ordinary physical diseases, have objective physical causes and require specific treatments.
-Catching the flu (causes and specific treatments)
A psychological alternative to the medical model that views psychological disorder through a combination of the social, cognitive, and behavioral perspectives.
-fear of public speaking
The fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association; the psychiatric classification system most widely accepted in the United States.
Before the DSM-IV, this term was used as a label for subjective distress or self-defeating behavior that did not shows signs of brain abnormalities or grossly irrational thinking.
A disorder involving profound disturbances in perception, rational thinking, or affect.
Abnormal disturbances in emotion or mood, including bipolar disorder and unipolar disorder; also called affective disorders.
A form of depression that does not alternate with mania.
-Remaining depressed for weeks/months for no reason
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
Believed to be a form of depression caused by deprivation of sunlight.
-Always staying inside, only going out at night
A mental abnormality involving swings of mood from mania to depression.
-Feeling extremely hyper one minute, and depressed the next
Mental problems characterized mainly by anxiety; include panic disorder, specific phobias, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Generalized anxiety disorder
A psychological problem characterized by persistent and pervasive feelings of anxiety, without any external causes.
-Worrying constantly about every little thing
A disturbance marked by panic attacks that have no obvious connection with events in the person's present experience; unlike generalized anxiety disorder, the victim is usually free of anxiety between panic attacks.
-You are calmly eating lunch when an unexpected wave of dizzy spells and cold sweats enter your body
A fear of pubic places and open spaces, commonly accompanying panic disorder.
-Feeling anxious at a soccer game because there is too much people
A group of anxiety disorders involving a pathological fear of a specific object or situation.
-Fear of food, opening your eyes, gravity, numbers, etc
The notion that we have an innate tendency, acquired through natural selection, to respond quickly and automatically to stimuli that posed a survival threat to our ancestors.
-Developing phobias much easier towards snakes and lightning rater than cars and electrical outlets
A condition characterized by patterns of persistent, unwanted thoughts and behaviors.
-Having to touch the door knob 20 times before leaving the house
Psychological problems appearing in the form of bodily symptoms or physical complaints, such as weakness or excessive worry about disease; include conversion disorder and hypochondriasis.
-Psyching yourself out about having cancer or flesh eating bacteria
A type of somatoform disorder, marked by paralysis, weakness, or loss of sensation but with no discernible physical cause.
-Believing that you are blind, when you have healthy vision
A somatoform disorder involving excessive concern about health and disease.
-Believing that every ache and pain is a disease
A group of pathologies involving "fragmentation" of the personality, in which some parts of the personality have become detached, or dissociated, from other parts.
-Dissociative identity disorder, dissociate fugue
A psychologically induced loss of memory for personal information, such as one's identity or residence.
-Not knowing your name or where you live
Essentially the same as dissociative amnesia, but with the addition of "flight" from one's home, family, and job.
-Travel to distant locations and take up new lives
An abnormality involving the sensation that mind and body have separated, as in an "out-of-body" experience.
-"Out of body experiences"
Dissociative identity disorder
A condition in which an individual displays multiple identities, or personalities; formerly called "multiple personality disorder."
-The movie "Sybil". One personality was a 2 year-old, the other was an old lady
An eating disorder that involves persistent loss of appetite that endangers an individual's health and stems from emotional or psychological reasons rather than from organic causes.
-Starving yourself. Eating only ONE crumb of bread for breakfast,lunch, and dinner
An eating disorder characterized by binges followed by "purges" induced by vomiting or laxatives; typically initiated as a weight-control method.
-Forcing yourself to throw up after eating a big meal
A psychotic disorder involving distortions in thoughts, perceptions, and/or emotions.
-emotions become blunted, thoughts turn bizarre, and language takes strange twists
In reference to schizophrenia, the proposal that says that genetic factors place the individual at risk while environmental stress transform this potential into an actual schizophrenic disorder.
Conditions involving a chronic, pervasive, inflexible, and maladaptive pattern of thinking, emotion, social relationships, or impulse control.
-narcissistic personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder
Narcissistic personality disorder
Characterized by a grandiose sense of self-importance, a preoccupation with fantasies of success or power, and a need for constant attention or admiration.
-Becoming annoyed [rather than respectful/concerned] when a friend cancels a date due to the death of a family member
Antisocial personality disorder
Characterized by a long-sanding pattern of irresponsible behavior indicating a lack of conscience and a diminished sense of responsibility to others.
-Feeling "cool/calm" after murdering someone
Borderline personality disorder
An unstable personality given to impulsive behavior.
-Gambling, reck-less driving
A developmental disorder marked by disabilities in language, social interaction, and the ability to understand another person's state of mind.
-Lack "theory of mind"
A reading disability, thought by some experts to involve a brain disorder.
-Mixing up numbers . Having a hard time saying the alphabet backwards
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
A developmental disability involving short attention span, distractibility, and extreme difficulty in remaining inactive for any period.
-Unable to sit still and focus in class
A legal term, not a psychological or psychiatric one, referring to a person who is unable, because of a mental disorder or defect, to conform his or her behavior to the law.
-jealous rage, mental retardation