HIUS 221

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Misconceptions of Indians

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Roger Williams

He founded Rhode Island for separation of Church and State. He believed that the Puritans were too powerful and was ordered to leave the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious beliefs. Englishman and clergy

The Eastern Woodlands Indians

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Anne Hutchinson

She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639. American colonist. banished from boston. (1591-1643)

"First Contact"

European discovery, exploration, initial conquest, & settlement of the Americas & commercial expansion elsewhere in the world

William Penn

Penn, an English Quaker, founded Pennsylvania in 1682, after receiving a charter from King Charles II the year before. He launched the colony as a "holy experiment" based on religious tolerance.

Indian Religion

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In Quakers dentured servitude

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Fate of Native Americans

Native American Culture got wiped out for the time being, their culture was being destroyed and many were massacred.

Slavery

a social-economic system under which certain persons — known as slaves — are deprived of personal freedom and compelled to perform labour or services

Prince Henry the Navigator

(1394-1460) Prince of Portugal who established an observatory and school of navigation at Sagres and directed voyages that spurred the growth of Portugal's colonial empire.Explored West Africa during 15th century

House of Burgesses

the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legistlative acts.

Columbus

Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)

The English Civil War

A war that broke out between the parliament supporters (roundheads) and the king's supporters (cavaliers). It ended with the execution of the king, Charles I

Treaty of Tordesillas

a 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.

The Restoration

This was the re-establishment of the monarchy in England under Charles II. Both houses of Parliament were restored but the religious tensions still were present in England

Conquistadores

Spanish 'conqueror' or soldier in the New World. They were searching for the 3-G's: gold, God, and glory.

Bacon's Rebellion

an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon. It was the first rebellion in the American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part; a similar uprising in Maryland occurred later that year. The uprising was a protest against the governor of Virginia, William Berkeley.

Cortes

Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)

William Berkeley

a Governor of Virginia, appointed by King Charles I, of whom he was a favorite. He was governor from 1641-1652 and 1660-1677. Berkeley enacted friendly policies towards the Indians that led to Bacon's Rebellion in 1676.

Coronado

the explorer who traveled across America's southwest in search of the fabled "seven cities of gold"

The colonial militia

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Northwest Passage

a water route between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans along the northern coast of North America

The English Bill of Rights

this bill of rights was made during the "glorious revolution" under William and Mary. This limited the power of the monarchy and guaranteed the privileges of the high class. This made sure that the monarchy ruled by the consent of parliament which now had to be called every three years. By doing so, it prevented the monarchy from gaining too much power and ruling in a way disagreeable to the people of England.

Jacques Cartier

French explorer who explored the St. Lawrence river and laid claim to the region for France (1491-1557)

Factors in the decline of Puritanism

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Fur trading

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The Glorious Revolution

In order to prevent a Catholic Dynasty the English Parliament drove out James II following the birth of his son and replaced him with the protestant Stahoulder of the Nederlands William, and his wife and daughter of James II, Mary II. This was a relativly bloodless revolution. (excepting the Irish Rebellion in which an Catholic coalition of English-Irish-French troops led by James were butchered). Allowed more powere to the legislature.

Joint stock companies

an association of individuals in a business enterprise with transferable shares of stock, much like a corporation except that stockholders are liable for the debts of the business

Edmund Andros

He was the royal governor of the Dominion of New England. Colonists resented his enforcement of the Navigation Acts and the attempt to abolish the colonial assembly.

The Lost Colony of Roanoke

-Led by Sir Walter Raleigh and struggled to survive and disappeared.
-Sent 100 men, but after a hard winter, the colonists returned to England
-John White led the group when Raleigh tried again with men,women, and children
-White's daughter gave birth shortly after, and they named her Virginia Dare
-White sailed to England for supplies, but because of the Spanish Armada, it took him nearly three years to return
-When he returned, it was deserted, except for the word Croatoan carved on a gatepost

Navigation Acts

Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.

Jamestown

The first successful settlement in the Virginia colony founded in May, 1607. Harsh conditions nearly destroyed the colony but in 1610 supplies arrived with a new wave of settlers. The settlement became part of the Virginia Company of London in 1620. The population remained low due to lack of supplies until agriculture was solidly established. Jamestown grew to be a prosperous shipping port when John Rolfe introduced tobacco as a major export and cash crop.

Period of Salutary Neglect

the period of time during which england did not exercise tight control over the american colonies was know as this

John Smith

Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter. (1580-1631)

The Great Awakening

This was a major religious revival in the colonies, which began in the 1730's with its leader being Jonathan Edwards

John Rolfe

He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.

Jonathan Edwards

The most outstanding preacher of the Great Awakening. He was a New England Congregationalist and preached in Northampton, MA, he attacked the new doctrines of easy salvation for all. He preached anew the traditional ideas of Puritanism related to sovereignty of God, predestination, and salvation by God's grace alone. He had vivid descriptions of Hell that terrified listeners.

Tobacco

Cash crop that made a profit and saved Jamestown

The Enlightenment

A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700's and spread to the colonies. It emphasized reason and the scientific method. Writers of the enlightenment tended to focus on government, ethics, and science, rather than on imagination, emotions, or religion. Many members of the Enlightenment rejected traditional religious beliefs in favor of Deism, which holds that the world is run by natural laws without the direct intervention of God.

Powhatan Confederacy

The organization of Powhatan Tribes led by Chief Powhatan. Jamestown colonists traded with these natives.

Thomas Hobbes

English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679). Wrote "Leviathan"

Motivations for English colonization

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John Locke

Wrote Two Treatises on Government as justification of Glorious Revolution and end of absolutism in England. He argued that man is born good and has rights to life, liberty, and property. To protect these rights, people enter social contract to create government with limited powers. If a government did not protect these rights or exceeded its authority, Locke believed the people have the right to revolt. The ideas of consent of the governed, social contract, and right of revolution influenced the United States Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution. He also laid the foundations for criticism of absolute monarchy in France.

Separatists/Pilgrims

Puritans who did not believe reforming the Church of England from within was possible, therefore formed independent congregations with their own ministers. Fled from England to escape persecution, first to Holland and eventually to America. In 1620, this small Group of families founded the Plymouth Colony, the second permanent English colony in North America. PAGE 50

Charles de Montesquieu

French political thinker whose ideas influenced the Declaration of Independence., Spirit of Law, advocated separation of powers with the three branches of legislative, judicial, and executive

Puritans

Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization. Settled in Massachusets Bay

Benjamin Franklin

American public official, writer, scientist, and printer. After the success of his Poor Richard's Almanac (1732-1757), he entered politics and played a major part in the American Revolution. Franklin negotiated French support for the colonists, signed the Treaty of Paris (1783), and helped draft the Constitution (1787-1789). His numerous scientific and practical innovations include the lightning rod, bifocal spectacles, and a stove.

John Winthrop

As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Winthrop (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.

Beringia

an ancient land bridge over which the earliest Americans are believed to have migrated from Asia into the Americas

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