Ch.12 BLOOD (terms)

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64 terms · Book: The human body in health and disease

plasma

liquid portion of the blood

formed element

cellular fraction of blood

acidosis

condition in which there is an excessive proportion of acid in the blood and thus an abnormally low blood pH

alkalosis

condition in which there is an excessive proportion of alkali(Base) in the blood

antigen

substance that stimulates the production of an antibody

antibody

a substance produced by the body that destroys or inactivates an antigen that has entered the body

agglutinate

antibodies causing antigens to clump or stick together

universal donor blood

Blood type O

universal recipient blood

blood type AB

erythroblastosis fetalis

hemolytic disease in the newborn caused by a blood groop (Rh factor) incompatibility between the mother and the fetus

RhoGAM

is a drug used for mothers who have Rh- blood to keep them from producing antibodies that could harm their future babies

plasma proteins

ex :albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen

albumins

help retain water in the blood

globulins

include antibodies that help protect us from infections

myeloid tissue

Red Bone Marrow

lymphatic tissue

produces lymp and lymphocytes (white blood cells)

hematopoiesis

formation of new blood cells

bone marrow transplant

infusion of normal bone marrow cells from a donor with matching cells and tissue to a recipient with a certain type of leukemia or anemia

oxyhemoglobin

when oxygen unites with hemoglobin to form an oxygen-hemoglobin compex

carbaminohemoglobin

when hemoglobin combines with carbon dioxide

CBC(complete blood cell count)

battery of tests used to mesaure the amounts or levels of many blood constitutes and is often ordered as a routine part of a physical examination

hematocrit

component of the CBC that provides information about the volume of RBC's in a blood sample

buffy coat

a thin light colored layer of white blood cells and platelets than lie between a top layer of plasma and red blood cells

polycythemia

serious blood disorder characterized by dramatic increases in RBC numbers

anemia

An inadequate number of RBC's, a deficiency in the production of normal hemoglobin, or production of hemoglobin that is in some way defective

hemorrhagic anemia

caused by an actual decrease in the number of circulating RBC's lost because of hemorrhage or bleeding

acute blood-loss anemia

can result from extensive surgery or sudden trauma

chronic blood-loss anemia

caused by slow but continuous blood loss over time from diseases such as cancer or ulcers

aplastic anemia

characterized by abnormally low RBC counts and destruction of bone marrow

pernicious anemia

results from a dietary deficiency of vitamin B12 or from the failure of the stomach ling to produce "intrinsic factor" the substance that allows vitamin B12 to be absorbed

folate deficiency anemia

results from vitamin B9 deficiency

iron deficiency anemia

caused by the deficiency of iron

hemolytic anemias

group that are all associated with a decreased life span caused by an increased rate of destruction

sickle cell anemia

genetic disease that results in the formation of limited amounts of an abnormal type of hemoglobin called hemoglobin S(HbS)

Thalassemia

a group of inherited hemolytic anemias

leukocytes

white blood cells

leukopenia

used to describe an abnormally low WBC count

leukocytosis

refers to an abnormally high WBC count

differential WBC count

reveals more information than simply counting the total number of all of the different types of WBC's in a blood sample

neutrophils

The most abundant type of white blood cell. Neutrophils are phagocytic and tend to self-destruct as they destroy foreign invaders, limiting their life span to a few days.

phagocytes

white blood cells that digest & destroy microorgasims and other unwanted substances

eosinophils

white blood cell that are responsible for combating infection by parasites

basophils

a type of WBC that promotes inflammation and participates in allergic responses.

monocytes

largest leukocytes; aggressive phagocytes; capable of engulfing larger bacterial organisms and cancerous cells

macrophages

"large eater" monocytes that have grown to several times their original size after migrating out of the bloodstream

lymphocytes

help protect us against infection

plasma cells

cells that develop from B cells and produce antibodies.

lymphoid neoplasms

malignant transformations of B cells, T cells, and NK cells. When present in blood and bone marrow, lymphoid neoplasms are called leukemias, and when they are localized in lymphoid tissues they are called lymphomas.

myeloid neoplasms

abnormal proliferation of myeloid tissue or myeloid precursor cell often associated w/ cancerous transformation

multiple myeloma

cancer of mature, antibody secreting B lymphocytes called plasma cells

Infectious mononucleosis

"the kissing disease"; common non-cancerous WBC disorder appearing most often in adolescents and young adults, An infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) that is characterized by fever, a sore throat, and enlarged lymph nodes

prothrombin activator

a protein formed by clotting factors from damaged tissue cells and platelets; it converts prothrombin into thrombin, a step essential to forming a blood clot

prothrombin

plasma protein; converted to thrombin in the clotting process

thrombin

an enzyme that acts on fibrinogen in blood causing it to clot

fibrinogen

a protein present in blood plasma, constituent of blood that aids in coagulation

fibrin

Protein threads that form the basis of a blood clot, The activated form of the blood-clotting protein fibrinogen, which aggregates into threads that form the fabric of the clot.

thrombus

a clot that stays in the same place it was formed

thrombosis

the formation or presence of a thrombus (a clot of coagulated blood attached at the site of its formation) in a blood vessel

embolus

A clot that breaks lose and travels through the bloodstream.

embolism

sudden blockage of a blood vessel by an embolus

hemophilia

a hereditary disease where blood does not coagulate to stop bleeding

factor VIII

a coagulation factor (trade name Hemofil) whose absence is associated with hemophilia A

thrombocytopenia

disorder that results from a decrease in the platelet count

Normal volumes of blood

plasma 2.6L, formed elements 2.4L, whole blood- 4 to 6L average or 7% to 9% of total body weight

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