BIOLOGY SAT SUBJECT TEST VOCABULARY

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Helps you study for the SAT Subject Test for Biology. (I have used other users' vocabulary to build this.) ---------------- http://www.gamingtimenow.com Take a break from studying! Play the best free online games now.

abiotic

nonliving, as in the physical environment

absorption

the process by which water and dissolved substances pass through a membrane

acetylcholine

a transmitter substance released from the axons of nerve cells at the synapse

active immunity

protective immunity to a disease in which the individual produces antibodies as a result of previous exposure to the antigen

adaptation

a behavioral or biological change that enables an organism to adjust to its environment

adaptive radiation

the production of a number of different species from a single ancestral species

adenosine phosphate

adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which are energy storage molecules

ADH (vassopressin)

a hormone that regulates water reabsorption

adrenal cortex

the ourter part of the adrenal gland that secretes many hormones, including cortisone and aldosterone

adrenal medulla

the inner part of the adrenal gland that secretes adrenalin

adrenaline (epinephrin)

an "emergency" hormone stimulated by anger or fear; increase blood pressure and heart rate in order to supply the emergency needs of the muscles

adrenocorticotrophic hormone

usually referred to as ACTH and secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce its characteristic hormones

aerobe

an organism that requires oxygen for respiration and can live only in the presence of oxygen

aerobic

requiring free oxygen from the atmosphere for normal activity and respiration

aldosterone

hormone active in osmoregulation; a mineral corticoid produced by the adrenal cortex; stimulates reabsorption of Na+ and secretion of K+

alimentary canal

an organ centrally involved in the human digestive system

allantois

the extraembyonic membrane of birds, reptiles and mammals that serves as an area of gaseous exchange and as a site for the storage of noxious excretion products

allele

one or two or more types of genes, each representing a particular trait; many alleles exist for a specific gene locus

alternation of generations

the description of a plant life cycle that consists of a diploid, asexual, sporophyte generation and a haploid, sexual, gametrophyte generation

alveolus

an air sac in the lung; the site of respiratory exchange, involving diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air in the alveolus and the blood in the capillaries

amnion

the extraembryonic membrane in birds, reptiles and mammals that surrounds the embryo, forming an amniotic sac

pseudopod

movement of amoeba

anaerobe

an organism that does not require free oxygen in order to respire

anaerobic

living or active in the absence of free oxygen; pertaining to respiration that is independent of oxygen

analogous

describes structures that have similar function but different evolutionary origins; e.g., a bird's wing and a moth's wing

anaphase

the stage in mitosis that is characterized by the migration of chromatids to opposite ends of the cell; the stage in meiosis during which homologus pairs migrate (Anaphase I), and the stage in meiosis during which chromatids migrate to different ends of the cell (Anaphase II)

androgen

a mall sex hormone (e.g., testosterone)

angiosperm

a flowering plant; a plant of the class Angiospermae that produces seeds enclosed in an ovary and is characterized by the possession of fruits and flowers

Annelida

the phylum to which segmented worms belong

anther

the part of the male reproductive organ (the stamen) that produces and stores pollen

antibiotic

an antipathogenic substance (e.g., penicillin)

antibody

globular proteins produced by tissues that destroy or inactivate antigens

antigen

a foreign protein that stimulates the production of antibodies when introduced into the body of an organism

aorta

the largest artery; carries blood from the left ventricle

aortic arch

blood vessels located between ascending and descending aortas that deliver blood to most of the upper body

appendage

a structure that extends from the trunk of an organism and is capable of active movements

aqueous humor

fluid in the eye, found between the cornea and the lens

Arachnida

a class of arthropods that includes scorpions, spiders, mites and ticks

artery

a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart

Arthropoda

the phylum to which jointed-legged invertebrates belong, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans

asexual reproduction

the production of daughter cells by means other than the sexual union of gametes (as in budding and binary fission)

assimilation

the conversion of digested foods and other materials into forms usable by the body (i.e., the conversion of amino acids into proteins)

assortative mating

the type of mating that occurs when an organism selects a mating partner that resembles itself

atrium

the thin-walled anterior chamber of the heart (also called the auricle)

autolysis

self-digestion occurring in plant and animal tissues, particularly after they have ceased to function properly

autonomic nervous system

the part of the nervous system that regulates the involuntary muscles, such as the walls of the alimentary canal; includes the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems

autosome

any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome

autotroph

an organism that utilizes the energy of inorganic materials such as water and carbon dioxide or the sun to manufacture organic materials

auxin

a plant growth hormone

axon

a nerve fiber

bacillus

bacteria that are rod shaped

bacteriophage

a type of virus that can destroy bacteria by infecting, parasitizing and eventually killing them

bile

an emulsifying agent secreted by the liver

bile salts

compounds in bile that aid in emulsification

binary fission

asexual reproduction; in this process, the parent organism splits into two equal daughter cells

binomial nomenclature

the system of naming an organism by its genus and species name

biome

a habitat zone, such as desert, grassland or tundra

biotic

living, as in living organisms in the environment

blastula

a stage of embryonic development in which the embryo consists of a hollow ball of cells

Bowman's capsule

part of the nephron in the kidney; involved in excretion

bud

in plants, an area of undifferentiated tissue covered by embryonic leaves

budding

a process of asexual reproduction in which the offspring develop from an outgrowth of the plant or animal

buffer

a substance that prevents appreciable changes in pH in solutions to which small quantities of acids or bases are added

calorie

a unit of heat; the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree centigrade

Calvin cycle

cycle in photosynthesis that reduces fixed carbon to carbohydrates through the addition of electrons ("dark cycle")

cambium

undifferentiated tissue in the stem of a plant that aids growth in width

capillary

a tube one cell thick that carries blood from artery to vein; the site of material exchange between the blood and tissues of the body

carapace

a bony or chitinous case or shield covering the back or part of the back of an animal (shell of a crab)

carbohydrate

an organic compound to which hydrogen and oxygen are attached; the hydrogen and oxygen are in a 2:1 ratio; examples include sugars, starches and cellulose

carbon cycle

the recycling of carbon from decaying organisms for use in future generations

carnivore

a flesh-eating animal; a holotrophic animal that subsists on other animals or parts of animals

cation

an ion with a positive charge, or an ion that migrates towards the cathode (negative electrode) in an electric field

cell wall

a wall composed of cellulose that is external to the cell membrane in plants; it is primarily involved in support and in the maintenance of proper internal pressure

cell wall plate

in mitosis of higher plants, the structure that forms between the divided nuclei of the two daughter cells and eventually becomes the cell wall

central nervous system

encompasses the brain and the spinal cord

centriole

the small granular body within the centrosome to which the spindle fibers attach

centromere

the place of attachment of the mitotic fiber to the chromosome

centrosome

a structure in animal cells containing centrioles from which the spindle fibers develop

cephalic

pertaining to the head

cerebellum

the hindbrain region that controls equilibrium and muscular coordination

cerebral cortex

the outer layer of cerebral hemispheres in the forebrain, consisting of gray matter

cerebral hemisphere

one of the paired lateral divisions of the forebrain

cerebrum

the largest portion of the human brain; it is believed to be the center of intelligence, conscious thought and sensation

chemosynthesis

the process by which carbohydrates are formed through chemical energy; found in bacteria

chemotropism

the orientation of cells or organisms in relation to chemical stimuli; the growth or movement response of organisms to chemical stimuli

chitin

a white or colorless, amorphous, horny substance that forms part of the outer integument of insects, crustaceans and some other invertebrates; it also occurs in certain fungi

chlorophyll

a green pigment that performs essential functions as an electron donor and light "entrapper" in photosynthesis

chloroplast

a plastid containing chlorophyll

Chordata

an animal phylum in which all members have a notochord, dorsal nerve cord and pharyngeal gill slits at some embryonic stage; includes the Cephalochordata and the Vertebrates

chorion

the outermost, extra-embryonic membrane of reptiles and birds

chromatid

one of the two strands that constitute a chromosome; chromatids are held together by the centromere

chromatin

a nuclear protein of chromosomes that stains readily

chromosome

a short, stubby rod consisting of chromatin that is found in the nucleus of the cells; contains the genetic or hereditary component of cells (in the form of genes)

chyme

partially digested food in the stomach

circadian rhythms

daily cycles of behavior

cleavage

the division in animal cell cytoplasm caused by the pinching in of the cell membrane

climax community

the stable, biotic part of the ecosystem in which populations exist in balance with each other and with the environment

clotting

the coagulation of blood caused by the rupture of platelets and the interaction of fibrin, fibrinogen, thrombin, prothrombin and calcium ions

cloaca

the chamber in the alimentary canal of certain vertebrates located below the large intestine, into which the ureter and reproductive organs empty (as in frogs)

cochlea

the sensory organ of the inner ear of mammals; it is coiled and contains the organ of corti

codominant

the state in which two genetic traits are fully expressed and neither dominates

Coelentrata

an invertebrate animal phylum in which animals possess a single alimentary opening and tentacles with stinging cells

coelom

the space between the mesodermal layers that forms the body cavity of some animal phyla

coenzyme

an organic cofactor required for enzyme activity

colon

the large intestine

commensal

describes an organism that lives symbiotically with a host; this host neither benefits nor suffers from the association

conditioning

the association of physical, visceral response with an environmental stimulus with which it is not naturally associated; a learned response

cone

a cell in the retina that is sensitive to colors and is responsible for color vision

consumer

organism that consumes food from outside itself instead of producing it

contractile vacuole

a specialized structure that controls osmotic pressure by removing water from the cell

cornea

the outer, transparent layer of the eye

corpus callosum

a tract of nerve fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres

corpus luteum

a remnant of follicle after ovulation that secretes the hormone progesterone

cortex

in plants, the tissue between the epidermis and the vascular cylinder in the roots and stems of plants; in animals, the outer tissue of some organs

cortisone

a hormonal secretion of the adrenal cortex

cotyledon

a "seed leaf"; responsible for food digestion and storage in plant embryo

cretinism

a thyroid deficiency that results in stunted growth and feeblemindedness

crossing over

the exchange of parts of homologous chromosomes during meiosis

cross-pollination

the pollination of the pistil of one flower with pollen from the stamen of a different flower of the same species

Crustacea

a large class of arthropods, including crabs and lobsters

cuticle

a waxy protective layer secreted by the outer surface of plants, insects, etcetera

cytochrome

a hydrogen carrier containing iron that functions in many cellular processes, including respiration

cytokinesis

a process by which the cytoplasm and the organelles of the cell divide; the final stage of mitosis

cyton

the cell body of a neuron

cytoplasm

the living matter of a cell, located between the cell membrane and the nucleus

cytoskeleton

the organelle that provides mechanical support and carries out motility functions for the cell

cytosine

a nitrogen base that is present in nucleotides and nucleic acids; it is paired with guanine

deamination

the removal of an amino group from an organism, particularly from an amino acid

deletion

the loss of all or part of a chromosome

dendrite

the part of the neuron that transmits impulses to the cell body

deoxyribose

a five carbon sugar that has one oxygen atom less than ribose; a component of DNA

diastole

the passive, rhythmical expansion or dilation of the cavities of the heart (atria or ventricles) that allows these organs to fill with blood; preceded and followed by systole (contraction)

dicotyledon

a plant that has two seed leaves or cotyledons

diencephalon

the hind portion of the forebrain of vertebrates

differentation

a progressive change from which a permanently more mature or advanced state results

diffusion

the movement of particles from one place to another as a result of their random motion

digestion

the process of breaking down large organic molecules into smaller ones

dihybrid

an organism that is heterozygous for two different traits

dimorphism

the instance of polymorphism in which there is a difference of form between two members of a species, as between males and females

diploid

describes cells that have a double set of chromosomes in homologous pairs (2n)

disaccharide

a sugar composed of two combined monosaccharides

disjunction

the separation of homologous pairs of chromosomes following meiotic synapsis

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid; found in cell nucleus, its basic unit is the nucleotide; contains coded genetic information; can replicate on the basis of heredity

dominance

a dominant allele suppresses the expression of the other member of an allele pair when both members are present

dorsal root

the sensory branch of each spinal nerve

duodenum

the most anterior portion of the small intestine of vertebrates, adjacent to the stomach; the continuation of the stomach into which the bile duct and pancreatic duct empty

ecological succession

the orderly process by which one biotic community replaces another until a climax community is established

ecology

the study of organisms in relation to their environment

ectoderm

the outermost embryonic germ layer that gives rise to the epidermis and the nervous system

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