AP Human Geography Ethnicity: Terms from Rubenstein and others

sequent occupance

The notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape. This is an important concept in geography because it symbolizes how humans interact with their surroundings.

genotype

The genetic makeup, as distinguished from the physical appearance of an organism or a group of organisms

phenotype

The observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism, as determined by both genetic makeup and environmental influences.

triangular slave trade

an efficient triangular trading pattern

exclave

a portion of a country geographically seperated from the main part by surrounding alien territory

multi-ethnic state

state that contains more one ethnicity.

multinational state

state that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self determination that agree to coexist peacefully by reconizing each other as distinct nationalities

Balkanized

A small geographic area that could not successfully be organized into one or more stable states because it was inhabited by many ethnicities with complex, long-standing antagonisms toward each other.

blockbusting

A process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that black families will soon move into the neighborhood.

ethnic islands

A small rural area settled by a single, distinctive ethnic group that placed its imprint on the landscape

genetics

The science of heredity, dealing with resemblances and differences of related organisms resulting from the interaction of their genes and the environment.

ethnicity

Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.

genocide

The deliberate and systematic extermination of a national, racial, political, or cultural group.

dowry deaths

The death of young women who are murdered or driven to suicide by continuous harrassment and torture by husband or in-laws.

self-determination

concept that ethnicities have right to govern themselves

sharecropper

works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops

plural society

a society in which several ethnic groupings coexist, each living in communities or regions variously separate from the others

barrioization

The "dramatic" increase in Hispanic population in a given neighborhood

racism

a belief or doctrine that inherent differences among the various human races determine cultural or individual achievement, usually involving the idea that one's own race is superior and has the right to rule others.

racist

A person with a prejudiced belief that one race is superior to others.

nation-state

a state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality

race

people who are believed to belong to the same genetic stock

apartheid

Translated: separateness. Originally: A rigid policy of segregation of the population in South Africa along racial lines . Now: A system or practice that separates people according to race, caste, etc.

Balkanization

to divide (a country, territory, or other geographic area) into small, quarrelsome, and ineffectual states.

nationalism

Loyalty and devotion to a nation, or nationality

nationality

identity with a group of people who share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular country

centrifugal force

The apparent force that seems to draw away from unity of a group. Centrifugal forces are those characteristics & issues that divide a people, or state.

ethnic cleansing

The systematic elimination of an ethnic group, or groups from a region or society through deportation, forced emigration, or genocide (mass murder).

ethnicity

Group identification based on shared ethnic traits, background, allegiance, or association

residential segregation

segregation of where groups of people inside a specific community, area, or country live

gender

distinction between two things, words, or actions based on perceived sex (i.e., masculine or feminine, male or female)

enclave

A country surrounded by a foreign country; a group living within a larger group*

acculturation

The modification of one's culture with a prolonged interaction involving another culture

centripetal force

An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state.

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