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Adaptive Strategies

Describes a society's system of economic production. - Helps explain some of the differences between societies that are influenced by economy.

Agrarian

People or societies that are farmers therefore promote agricultural interest ext. - Where agrarian people and societies are located is not generally near cities ext. But these types of people are essential to the way that we live and our ability to live in cities.

Agribusiness

Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations. - It influences how things are grown and what people eat.

Agricultural Industrialization

The us of machinery in agriculture, like tractors ect. - Makes it a lot faster for farmers to yield crop.

Agricultural Landscape

The land that we farm on and what we choose to put were on our fields. - Effects how much yield one gets from their parents.

Agricultural Location Model

A model designed by Von Thunen, that depending on the cost of transportation and the value of the product, different types of farming are conducted at different distances from a city. Site or human factors were not considered in this model. - When deciding where to locate a farm, a farmer must take into consideration how much it costs to transport their product. Location of farm affects what a farmer will produce. ( if in rural area farmer is less likely to grow highly perishable and bulky products )

Agricultural Origins

Through time nomadic people noticed the growing of plants in cycle and began to domesticate them and use for there own use. Carl Sauer points out vegetive planting and seed agriculture as the original forms. he also points out that vegetive planting likely was originated in SE Asia and seed agriculture originated in W India, N China, and Ethiopia. -Without the development of agriculture we would still have a relatively small and likely uneducated population.

Agriculture

The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for subsistence or economic gain. -It has influenced the growth of areas and human society.

Animal Domestication

Domestication of animals for selling or using byproducts. - Helped us obtain meat with out having to go out and kill our food right before dinner.

Aquaculture

The cultivation of aquatic organisms especially for food. -Allowed us to use the sea and its abundant sources of food for our benefit.

Biorevolution

The revolution of biotechnology and the use of it in societies. -Has allowed us to revolutionize our societies.

Biotechnology

Using living organisms in a useful way to produce commercial products like pest resistant crops. -Has helped the farmers grow a more bountiful harvest through the using of pesticides ect.

Collective Farm

An agricultural production unit including a number of farm households or villages working together under state control. - A type of farming that certain countries use that influences the amount of food produced and sold.

Commercial Agriculture

Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm. Two types : intensive ( terracing in South Asia ) and Extensive ( farming in Southern Minnesota ) -Allowed people to move away from farms, fueled industrial revolution.

Core/Periphery

The areas in the world that include MDCs are called the core and the area of the world that contains LDCs is referred to as the periphery. -Allowed us to divide the world and describe it more easily.

Crop Rotation

The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil. - Takes up large areas of land but keeps land usable for future generations.

Cultivatoin

Regions where there is agricultural activity. - Areas with agricultural activity generally are not a place where a big city would be located-Affects locations and different areas.

Dairying

The farming and sale/distribution of milk and milk products. -Gets calcium, allows for people to move to the city because there is a way of getting milk or milk products.

Debt-for-Nature Swap

When agencies such as World Bank make a deal with third world countries that they will cancel their debt if the country will set aside a certain amount of their natural resources. -Affects how and how much countries use their resources, also the money given to the countries helps them energize their economies.

Diffusion

the process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time. -This is how everything is spread around the world.

Double Cropping

Harvesting twice a year from the same land. -Can cause agricultural exhaustion making people move away from the land.

Economic Activity (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Quaternary, Quinary )

Primary : Involves jobs like lumber and mining. Secondary : Manufacturing products and assembling raw materials. Tertiary : The service sector that provides us with transportation, communication, and utilities. Quaternary : the service sector dedicated to jobs such as trade, insurance, banking, advertising, and wholesaling. Quinary : The service sector dedicated to health, education, research, government, retailing, tourism, and recreation. All of these jobs are necessary in the world.

Environmental Modification ( Pesticides, soil erosion, desertification )

The destruction of the environment for the purpose of farming ( Using pesticides that drain in to the water and soil and pollute them overuse of land causing the desert like conditions of desertification ( dust bowl ) -Doing harm to the environment through pesticides and causing desertification have horrible long term effect on humans and their future.

Extensive Subsistence Agriculture

Use many fields for crop growing each field is used for a couple years then left fallow for a relatively long time.

Nomadic Herding/ Pastorilism

Based on herding domesticated animals. -Effect the way that some in the world to live and were they fall in demographic transition.

Extractive Industry

The extractive industry is made up of the mining, quarrying, dredging, oil and gas extraction industries.

Farm Crisis

Any disaster or occurrence that interrupts a farming season and hurts the farms profits for that time.

Farming

See agriculture

Feedlot

A plot of land on which livestock are fattened for market. - Essential to how we live and eat today - necessity for most people's diets.

First Agriculture revolution

Around 8000 BC when humans first domesticated plants and animals. -This allowed for future generations to grow larger because they no longer we just a hunter gatherer society.

Fishing

The technique, occupation, or diversion of catching fish. Fishing provides food source and employment to society.

Food Chain

A series of organisms interrelated in their feeding habits, the smallest being fed upon by a larger one, which in turn feeds a still larger one, ect.

Forestry

The science of planting and taking care of trees and forests. Trees provide building materials and fuel to society.

Globalized Agriculture

Diffusion of agriculture across the globe.

Green Revolution

Rapid diffusion of new agriculture technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizer. Because of green revolution, agricultural productivity at a global scale has increased faster than the population.

Growing Season

The season in which crops grow best. Growing season can vary by location, societies rely on their growing season to which crops they can or can't grow at their altitude.

Hunting and Gathering

Before the agriculture, humans gained food by hunting for animals, fishing, or gathering plants. They lived in small groups ( less than 50 ), traveled frequently following game and seasonal growth of plants.

Intensive Subsistence Agriculture

A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expand a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasibly yield from a parcel of land. Popular because the ratio between farmers and arable land is so high, most of the work is done by the family by hand or by animal with processes refined over thousands of years.

Intertillage

Tillage between rows of crops and plants.

Livestock Ranching

Commercial grazing of livestock over and extensive area. Practiced is semi arid or arid land, where vegetation is too sparse or the soil is too poor to support crops. Prominent in later 19th century in the American West; ranchers free roamed throughout the West, until the US government began selling land to farmers who outlined their farms with barbed wire, forcing the ranchers to establish large ranches to allow their cattle to graze.

Market Gardening

The small scale production of fruits, vegetables, and flowers as cash crops sold directly to local consumers. Distinguished by the large diversity of crops grown on a small area of land, during a single growing season. Labor is done manually.

Second Agricultural Revolution

precursor to Industrial Revolution in the 19th century, that allowed a shift in work force beyond subsistence farming to allow labor to work in factories. started in United Kingdom, Netherlands, and Denmark, especially with the Enclosure Act, which consolidated land in Great Britain

Specialization

third level of cities (behind World Cities, and Command and Control Centers), offer a narrow and highly specialized variety of services. Typically specialize in management, research and development of a specific industry or are centers of government and education, notably state capitals that also have a major university

Staple Grains

Maize, wheat, and rice are the most produced grains produced world wide, accounting for 87% of all grains and 43% of all food. Maize staple food of North America, South American, Africa and livestock world wide, wheat is primary in temperate regions, and rice in tropical regions

Suitcase Farm

Individuals who live in urban areas a great distance from their land and drive to the country to care for their crops and livestock. This practice lends itself well to one growth of wheat. Allows families to continue their long relationships with the ancestral farm, but still enjoy the benefits of waged incomes in urban environments

Long Lots

houses erected on narrow lots perpendicular along a river, so that each original settler had equal river access

Metes and Bounds

Uses physical features of the local geography, along with directions and distances, to define the boundaries of a particular piece of land. Metes refers to boundary defined by a measurement of a straight run, bounds refers to a more general boundary, such as a waterway, wall, public road, or existing building

Township and Range

surveys used west of Ohio, after the purchase of the Louisiana Purchase. Land is divided into six-mile square blocks (township), which is then divided into one-mile square blocks (range). Ranges were broken into smaller parcels to be sold or given to people to develop

Sustainable Yield

ecological yield that can be extracted without reducing the base of capital itself, the surplus required to maintain natures services at the same or increasing level over time

Third Agricultural Revolution

Green Revolution Rapid diffusion of new agricultural techniques between 1970s and 1980s, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers

Mechanization

farmers need tractors, irrigation pumps, and other machinery to make the most effective use of the new miracle seeds. farmers in LDCs cannot afford this machinery or the fuel to run the equipment, so governments must allocate funds to subsidizing the cost of seeds, fertilizers and machinery

Chemical Farming

increased use of fertilizers with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The development of higher-yield crops has produced: a miracle wheat seed which is shorter and stiffer, less sensitive to variation in day length, responds better to fertilizers, and matures faster

Food Manufacturing

the Green Revolution has increased production to avoid widespread famine. Allowing the world population to grow about four billion since stared, also allowing populations in developing nations to consume 25% more than before

Tragedy of the Commons

social trap that involves a conflict over resources between interests and the common good

Transhumance

pastoral practice of seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pasture areas

Truck Farm

commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning bartering or the exchange of commodities. Predominant in southeastern U.S.A. because of the long rowing season and humid climate, accessibility to large markets of New York, Philadelphian and Washington. Truck farms grow many of the fruits and vegetables that consumers demand in developed societies. Truck farms sell some of their product to fresh markets, but mostly to large processors for canning or freezing

Von Thunen, Johann Heinrich

when choosing an enterprise a commercial farmer compares two costs; cost of the land versus the cost of transporting production to market. Identifies a crop that can be sold for more than the land cast, distance of land to market is critical because the cost of transporting varies by crop. Also found that specific crops were grown in varying rings around city. Market-oriented gardens and milk producers in first ring, because of expense of transportation and perishability. In the next rings wood lots used for construction and fuel, because it is a heavy industry with high transportation costs. Next rings are used for various crops or pasture, with the outermost right devoted to animal grazing. Von Thunens theory disregards site or human factors

Mediteranean Agriculture

farming in the landsurrounding the mediterranean sea (S. Europe, N. Africa and W. Asia) also in lands with similar climates. Sea winds provide moisture ande moderate winter; land is hilly with mountains frequently plunging directly into sea. Growing fruits vegetables, flowers and tree crops are the main crops

Mineral Fuels

natural resources containing hydrocarbons, which are not derived from animal or plant sources

Mining

extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the Earth. Any material that cannot be grown from agricultural processes, or created artificially, is mined

Planned Economy

economic system in which a single agency makes all decisions about the production and allocation of goods and services. Commonly state or government controls the factors of porduction and makes all decisions about their use and about the distribution of income.

Renewable

energy replaced continually within a human lifespan, has an essentially unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by people. Solar energy, hydroelectric, geothermal, fusion and wind are the most widely used

Non-Renewable

energy formed so slowly that for practical purposes it cannot be renewed. The three main fossil fuels (ptroleum, natural gas, and coal) plus nuclear energy are the most widely used, mostly because they are more cost efficient

Rural Settlement

sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities.. Live in villages, hamlets on farms, or in other isolated houses. Typically have an agricultural character, with an economy based on logging, mining, petroleum, natural gas or tourism

Dispersed

characterized by farmers living on individual farms isolated from neighbors rather than alongside other farmers in the area

Nucleated

a number of families live in close proximity to each other, with fields surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings

Building Material

houses and buildings are typically built from materials that are abundant in the area

Village Form

set up in a formation that has the village in the middle and spreads the rest out from there

Sauer, Carl O.

defined cultural landscape, as an area fashioned from nature by a cultural group. A combination of cultural features such as language and religion

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