individual's unique patterns of thought, feelings, and behavior that persist over time; unique, stable, enduring
theories that behavior results from the psychological forces that interact within the individual, often outside conscious awareness; linked by Freud
prominent in Freudian theory; ideas, thoughts, feelings of which we are not aware normally; basis of psychoanalysis
A form of therapy started by Freud based on uncovering unconscious conflicts and unresolved issues from childhood; uses techniques such as free association, dream interpretation, and transference
Freudian; unconscious urges and desires (Thanatos and Eros) and selfish needs; operates on pleasure principle-any means to satisfy need
Freudian idea that energy is from sexual instinct; Jungian idea that energy is everything
Freudian; partial or complete halt at one of the psychosexual stages of development; when individual fails to complete the psychosexual task successfully; can be expressed as personality traits
Freud, psychosexual stage of development; age: 0-18 months; task: transition from bottle/breast to solid food; conflict: id derives pleasure from sucking/excepting into mouth; if child fails to complete tasks, (s)he becomes fixated; fixations= pen chewing/smoking, sarcastic, pessimistic/trust issues; overindulged oral= overly talkative, clingy/needy, gullible.
Freud, psychosexual stage of development; age: 18 months-3 years; task: to successfully learned toilet training; conflict: id derives pleasure from retention/expulsion, whereas ego and superego represents society the practical/societal pressures to control bodily functions; if child fails to complete the task,(s)he becomes fixated; fixations-anal expulsion-messy, disorganized, reckless, careless, defiant; anal-retentive-neat, precise, orderly, stingy, obstinate, meticulous, passive-aggressive
Freud, psychosexual stage of development; age: 3-6 years; task: Explorer genital region, develop a relationship with parents, especially same gender parent; conflict: Oedipus/Electra complex-child competes with same-sex parents were opposite sex parent's attention; fixations-male-Castration Anxiety-because father possesses mother and therefore has power; must prove self/dominant, marries mother figure; female-penis envy-according to Freud penis equals power, submissive, dates older men
Jung; thought forms or collective memories passed down from generation to generation and stored in the collective unconscious; ancient/archaic images derived from the collective unconscious; examples-the mother, the hero, wise old man, the magician/trickster, the maiden...etc
Jung; our public self; the mask we wear to project that part of our personality outward towards others
Jung; female archetype as expressed in a man; originates in the collective unconscious, appears in dreams, visions, fantasies
Jung; male archetype as expressed in a woman; originates in the collective unconscious; shows as an image of feelings/mood
Personality aspect used in most trait theories (MBTI, Jung, Big 5) This personality type turn attention toward external world; energy is gained from outside or external sources/ being with others; everyone contains both (extro-, introvert)one is dominant.
powerful motivating force; individuals reaction to real/imagine dangers; Freud says anxiety emerges from sexual conflicts; Horney says that comes because children depend on adults for survival, one defenses are threatened anxiety occurs
humanistic personality theory
Associated with Maslow and Rogers; emphasizes that people are positively motivated and progress towards higher levels of functioning (more to human existence than dealing with hidden conflicts)
dimensions or characteristics that account for personality differences; examples-dependency, anxiety, sociability, extroversion; Allport created a list of thousands
cognitive-social learning theory
behavior is a product of the interaction of cognitive (thinking), learning, and past experiences; unique to each person
locus of control
Rotter; people believe reinforcement comes either from: internal-you control your fate, or external-chance & fate, behavior of others determine destiny
Bandura; cognitive social learning theory; expectancy that one's efforts will be successful
Horney; neuroses = anxiety; 3 strategies for coping with neuroses created by unmet needs: a) moving towards people-submission-given in, having a dominant partner; be) moving against people-aggression-anger, violence, altercation; see) moving away from people-detachment-withdrawal, isolation
Freud; id process by which the id seeks immediate gratification by any means necessary to receive pleasure and avoid pain; done in two ways-which fulfillment (day dream/dreams), ego processes
Freud; part of the personality that mediates between the selfishness of the id and the conscientiousness of the superego; uses the reality principle to satisfy id without harming superego's ideals; "self"
Freud; ego process; means by which the ego satisfies the id without compromising the value/morals are the superego
Freud; "moral watchdog"; governs behavior by reality and morality, often taught by parents, church and/or community; standards develop through interaction; conscience; ego ideal
Freud; ideal of perfection; part of the superego that consists of the standards of what you would like to be
Freud, child competes the same-sex parent were opposite gender parent's attention (phallic stage); can manifest in later personality-male: castration anxiety, dominant, tries to prove self, marries "mom"; female: penis envy, submissive, dates older men (like dad)
Freud, psychosexual stage of development; age: 6-12; sexual drive lies dormant, focuses on social nature and development of friendships, seen as period of repression (as sexual drives), all libido energy is poured into school and sports
Freud, psychosexual stage of development; age: 12+; task: intimate and sexual relationships; conflict: if fixated in previous stages, it may reappear
Jung; one of two levels; contains individuals repressed thoughts, forgotten experiences, and undeveloped ideas; can be triggered; similar to Freud's unconscious and preconscious
Jung; memories/behavior patterns inherited from past generations; shared by all humans; deep roots in the ancestral past an entire species; manifest as archetypes, myths, and legends
One of two general attitude types; caught up in personal world, lack confidence/desire to deal with people; energy is gained from within self, long exposure to people is draining; one is dominant (extro-, introvert)
Adler; a person's effort to overcome imagined or real personal weakness: inferiority complex or superiority complex
Adler; fixation on feelings of personal inferiority that result in emotional and social paralysis
conditional positive regard
Rogers; a stunting experience that love, acceptance, respect, and warmth, with the condition (or price tag); example: mommy doesn't love girls who do..., if you love me then...,
type of trait theory; five basic traits: extroversion, conscientiousness (dependability), agreeability, emotional stability, and openness
Rogers; drive of an individual to achieve his/her self-concept or self image; living up to the image of yourself that you create
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (2), An objective test used as an aid in diagnosing psychiatric (personality) disorders; two versions-adult and adolescent
personality tests that consists of a simple ambiguous stimuli to elicit a number of responses (Projection); examples-Rorschach, Rotter sentence completion test, TAT
projective personality test; Hermann Rorschach, Swiss psychiatrist; person specifies what they see in each inkblot.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
projective personality test; 20 cards with figures in ambiguous situations; person is asked to interpret the card (tell what is happening, leading up to and following the image); examined for content, language, consistency, organization, and originality
unconditional positive regard
Rogers; experience of being treated with warmth, respect, acceptance, and love regardless of their feelings, attitudes and behaviors; example: I may not agree with what you do, but I love you no matter what. Used by therapists in humanistic therapy and model for AA and NA.
Rogers; our psychological reality, composed of one's perceptions and feelings
fully functioning person
Rogers: an individual whose self-concept matches his or her inborn capacities or potentials.
person situation controversy
a theoretical dispute concerning the relative contribution of personality factors and situational factors in controlling behavior
Created by Isabel Briggs Myers, and her mother, Kathleen Briggs, An objective personality test based on 126 questions. Places people into Jung-inspired personality types (Extro-Introvert, Intuitive-Sensing, Thinking-Feeling, and Judging-Perceiving).
in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality (ie. denial, sublimation, repression...etc)
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings.
defense mechanism in which and unacceptable impulse (id) is expressed in a socially acceptable way. (ex. tackling in sports, dressing in a slutty outfit on Halloween).
(psychiatry) the classical defense mechanism that protects you from impulses or ideas that would cause anxiety by preventing them from becoming conscious
is the voluntary blocking of unpleasant feelings and experiences from ones mind. (dont want to talk about it)
a defense mechanism in which you flee from reality by assuming a more infantile state (whining, wanting parents to take care of you, tantrum, etc).
a defense mechanism that transfers an affect or reaction (usually agressive) from the original object to some more vulnerable/ less threatening one.
defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions
defense mechanism by which people refuse to believe or even to perceive painful realities
a defense mechanism that uses reasoning to block out emotional stress and conflict
Bandura's idea that though our environment affects us, we also affect our environment; interacting influences between personality and environment
Family systems theory
Theory that the individual's behavior is best understood in the context of the family (parent-child, sibling order, etc.) and the family's behavior is best understood in the context of other social systems.
giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly (in contrast to individualism).
The interacting influences between personality and environmental factors
uses theory and research to better understand the positive, adaptive, creative, and fulfilling aspects of human existence
Family Systems theory
A perspective on family functioning that emphasizes interconnections among different family relationships (such as marital, parent-child, sibling). These relationships influence personality, self identity and other aspects psychological functioning.
critical of personality trait-theory, felt situations decide actions, not personality
The psychodynamic (Freudian) concept that the female envies the male his possession of a penis or, more generally, any of his characteristics.