An interactive process, using symbols like words and gestures to both send and receive messages.
The concept that language shapes our culture, and at the same time, our culture shapes our language.
Values personal achievement and independence. The general belief is that people are responsible for themselves and should receive little help from outside sources, such as the government.
Focuses on the needs of the group- the family, the community, or the society, the goals of the group supersede the goals of the individual.
High Context Cultures
Emphasis is placed on indirect and nonverbal communication.
Low Context Cultures
Communication is more direct because people do not know each other well, more emphasis is placed on formal transactions and everything must be explained explicitly.
More likely to see compromise and negotiation as useful communication tools, caring for others, modesty, and enhancing overall quality of life.
Gender stereotypes tend to be more rigid and women have less power in society. Values of achievement, assertiveness, and material success.
Power is in the hands of a few. Usually great distance between those few who have power and the masses that do not.
Power is more evenly distributed and average people have a chance to participate.
Create clear-cut rules for behaviors and communication. Members may experience anxiety about their future.
Generally comfortable with the unknown situations. Minimize the importance of strict rules governing relationships and communication.
Long-Term Time Orientation
Emphasize the future and tend to value traits like thrift, deferred, gratification, and perseverance.
Short-Term Time Orientation
Cultures more interested in spending rather than saving, place greater emphasis on social status and look for quick results from their efforts.
More complex than just hearing; it is the process of giving thoughtful attention to what we hear.
Do not have deep meaning associated with them.
Usually associated with religion, children, sex.
Attitudes of feeling superior to your spouse. ex- eye rolling, sarcasm, and mocking.
Making negative evaluations of your spouse's behavior of feelings and attacking someone's character.
Effort to defend yourself and your position when you feel attacked in an argument.
Withdrawal technique in which some people show how they refuse to listen to their spouse.
Challenging behavior meant to establish power in the marital relationship.
A strategy that entails satisfying our partners needs at the expense of our goals, and can therefore be labeled as "lose-win."
Occurs when we remove ourselves from the conflict psychologically or physically. We may deny the existence of the conflict, reuse to discuss the issue, or walk away.
A type of conflict that results from differing opinions and subjects that relate to personal values and issues on right or wrong.
A type of conflict where individuals disagree about information.
Falsely perceiving that our partner is interfering with our goals or has incompatible goals.
Disagreements over decision making, problem solving, or achieving goals, which can result from differences between group members in personality, perception, information, tolerance for risk, and power or influence.
Telling a person something private about yourself that he or she would not know otherwise.
Communicating without words, by using gestures, expressions, and body language.
Principle of Least Interest
The person with the least interest in a relationship has the most power.
Intimate Partner Power
A type of power that involves decision making among intimates partners, their division of labor, and their sense of entitlement.
The ability to exercise your will over another person.
The degree of autonomy a person has to exercise his or her will.
The ability to exercise your will.
When we attempt to satisfy both our needs and those of our partners.
Occurs when both partners give up part of what they want to achieve partial satisfaction in meeting their goals.
We attempt to meet our own goals without the concerns for our partners needs.
A type of marriage available in three states that restrict access to divorce, requires premarital counseling, and imposes other rules and regulations.
The activities of a group of some religious leaders, marriage and family therapists, and government leaders who hope to influence public policy to promote and strengthen traditional marriage.
A type of marriage in which spouses share many facets of their lives such as a business they own, friends or hobbies with few independent interests.
A type of marriage in which the lives of partners are intertwined; physical and emotional intimacy are important and both hard work at communication and compromise so their relationships continue to be satisfying and enjoyable.
Partners married with low expectations of the intimacy marriage would provide, and expectations remained low. Little conflict, but little excitement.
An enduring marriage that exists without much passion. They spend time together but from obligation or habit.
This types of marriage is filled with tension and verbal and perhaps physical conflict but the partners do not feel these are reasons to divorce. They believe fighting is a normal part of marriage and is an acceptable way to communicate to solve problems.
The goods and services that are by-products of social relationships, including connections, social support, information, or financial help.
Generally married men earn more than their unmarried counterparts, particularly married men with stay at home wives.
A type marriage in which spouses share certain social characteristics such as race, ethnicity, religion, education, age, and social class.
Legally and socially recognized relationship that includes sexual, economic, and social rights and responsibilities for partners.
Marital decline perspective
The view that institution of marriage is increasingly being threatened by a hedonistic pursuits of personal happiness at the expense of long-term commitment.
Marital Resilience Perspective
The view that marriage is no weaker than in the past but that all families need an increase in structural supports to thrive.
A public policy designed to extend some benefits to partners who are not legally married.
The concept that married people are happier, healthier, and financially better of than those who are not married.
The hypothesis that people who marry may be different from those who do not marry. They may be happier, healthier, and have more money.
A type of marriage in which spouses come from different countries or have different cultural, religious, or ethnic backgrounds.
A type of marriage in which spouses come from different racial groups.
Laws forbidding interracial marriage, which existed at the state level until 1967.
A type of marriage in which spouses do not share certain social characteristics such as race, ethnicity, religion, education, age, and social class.
A type of marriage in which spouses share certain social characteristics such as race, ethnicity, religion, education, age, and social class.
A type of marriage in which couples consider themselves to have equal status or standing in a relationship.
a cultural value that encourages child-bearing.
1) Average number of children born to a women during her lifetime.
2) Number of children born per 1,000 women ages 15-44.
3) Number of children born per 1,000 population.
Direct Financial costs
out-of-pocket expenses for things such as food, clothing, housing, and education.
Lost opportunities for income by working only part-time or not at all because of children.
Inability to conceive a child.
Assisted reproductive technology
All fertility treatments in which both egg or sperm are handled.
The act of giving birth to a child for another person or a couple who then adopts or takes legal custody of the child.
A type of surrogacy where the man's sperm is implanted in the surrogate through artificial insemination.
A type of surrogacy where the intended mother's egg is combined with the man's sperm and implanted in the surrogate through in vitro fertilization.
Free-standing facilities (usually with close access to, but not affiliated with a hospital) where child birth is approached as a normal healthy process.
Voluntarily child free
The decision to not have children is usually not made only once, but many times as people undergo a process of deciding about children.
An adoption where identifying information sealed and unavailable to all parties.
A type of adoption that involves direct contact between the biological and adoptive parents.
An adoption that occurs through licensed public agencies.
An adoption arranged directly between adoptive parents and the biological birth mother, usually with the assistance of an attorney.
Medicalization of childbirth
the belief that child birth is a medical event in need of drugs and technological intervention.
A parenting style that is strict, punitive, and not very warm.
A parenting style that faces few controls over demands on the children.
A parenting style that is demanding and maintains high levels of control over the children, but is also warm and receptive.
Formal Operational Thought
Fourth stage (adolescence-adulthood) in which children develop capacities for abstract thought and can conceptualize more complex issues or rules that can be used for problem solving.
Concrete Operational Thought
Third stage (age 7-12) when children begins to see the casual connections in their surroundings, and can manipulate categories, classification systems, and hierarchies in groups.
Second stage (age 2-7) as the child learns language, symbolic play, and symbolic drawling, but does not grasp abstract concepts.
First stage (birth-age 2) in which infants and toddlers understand the world primarily through touch, sucking, listening, and looking.
Our conscious which draws upon our cultural values and norms to help us understand why we cannot have everything we want.
The rational component of the personality that attempts to balance the need for immediate gratification with the demands of society.
The part of the personality that includes biological drives and need for immediate gratification.
The lifelong process by which we acquire the cultural values and skills needed to function as human beings and participate in society.
Family Allowance (child allowance)
A cash benefit to families provided by the government to offset the cost of raising children.
Social Learning Theory
Developed by Alfred Bandura, the theory that behavior is learned through modeling and reinforcement.
Children who are unsupervised and taking care of themselves.
Non-relatives that provide childcare in the home.
Family Childcare providers
Private homes other than child's home where childcare is provided.
Nonresidential facilities that provide childcare.
An occurrence caused by the demands involving one sphere of work carrying over in another sphere.
Feeling overwhelmed by many different commitments and not having enough time to meet each commitment effectively.
A form of tensions under which people feel that the pressures from paid work and family roles are incompatible in some way.
Relative Resource Perspective
The greater the relative amount of value of resources contributed by a partner, the greater his or her power within the relationship, which can be translated into bargaining to avoid tasks such as housework that offers no pay and minimal social prestige.
A perspective that suggests the division of labor is largely determined by the need for household labor, such as the number of children in the home and each partner's availability to perform household task, such as the number of hours spent in paid work.
The unpaid work done to maintain family members and the home.
Household task that are more time-flexible and more discretionary such as household repairs, yard care, or paying bills.
The federal health care for the elderly.
The federal-state health care program for eligible poor of all ages.
Routine Household Labor
Non-discretionary, routine taks that can't be postponed, such as cooking, washing dishes, or cleaning.
Non-standard Work Schedule
Job schedules that are part-time, subcontracted, temporary in nature, occur at night, or offer irregular work schedules.
Wages that are above the federal state minimum wage levels, usually ranging from 100 to 130% of the poverty line.
Total fertility rate
Average number of children born to a women during her lifetime.
General fertility rate
Number of children born per 1,000 women ages 15-44.
Crude Fertility Rate
The number of children born per 1,000 population.
Based on the ability to achieve your will by force, either psychological or physical.
Comes from the ability to offer material or nonmaterial benefit to achieve your goal.
stems from a person's special knowledge or ability.
comes from the information that a person may use to persuade another to do something he she would not otherwise do.
stems from the emotional identification of the less dominant person towards the more dominant person.
based on a person's claim to authority or the right to exercise his or her will.