BIO 112

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atom

particle made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons

compound

the chemical combination of 2 or more elements in specific amounts

metabolism

all of the chemical reactions that build or break down materials within an organism

axon

long fiber that carries electrical impulses away from the nerve cell body

organelle

a specialized cell structure that performs a specific job within a cell

carbon dioxide

gas that is a reactant of photosynthesis and a waste product of cellular respiration

antibody

specialized protein made by the body to fight off future infections from a disease-causing organism

transcription

copying the code from DNA onto mRNA

codon

three mRNA nucleotides that code for a specific amino acid

translation

process by which a ribosome uses the code on mRNA to make proteins

nucleotide

building block of a nucleic acid (DNA and RNA)

chromatin

DNA that is coiled around proteins

amino acid

building block of a protein

mRNA

messenger RNA; type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome

polypeptide

synonym for protein; chain of amino acids

replication

process in which DNA is duplicated

rRNA

ribosomal RNA; type of RNA that makes up part of the ribosome

mutation

a change or error in the DNA sequence

tRNA

transfer RNA; type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome

cell division

division of a parent cell into two identical daughter cells

centriole

structure that helps to form the spindle

spindle

microtubule structure that separates chromosomes during mitosis

cell cycle

cell grows, prepares to divide, then divides to start growth process again; interphase + M phase

telophase

last phase of mitosis, chromosome are in two new cells and nuclear membranes start to reform

interphase

cell grows, performs its normal functions, and prepares for division; consists of G1, S, and G2 phases

mitosis

division of the nucleus or chromosomes

metaphase

phase of mitosis in which chromosomes line up in the center of the cell

prophase

first phase of mitosis in which chromosomes become visible and nuclear membraine disappears

cytokinesis

division of the cytoplasm (cytosol and organelles)

anaphase

phase of mitosis in which sister chromatids are pulled to opposite sides of the cell

G1 phase

stage of interphase in which cell grows and performs its normal functions

S phase

stage of interphase in which DNA is replicated

G2 phase

stage of interphase in which cell duplicates its cytosol and organelles

gamete

sex cell, sperm or egg

meiosis

type of cell division that creates gametes; cell divides twice to create four cells that are genetically unique

crossing-over

process by which homologous chromosomes exchange pieces, resulting in greater genetic variety

plasma membrane

thin flexible barrier that regulates what enters and exits the cell; composed of two layers of lipids

nuclear envelope

membrane surrounding the nucleus

nucleolus

helps to assemble ribosomes

cytoplasm

material between the cell membrane and the nucleus

mitochondrion

breaks down food to make ATP

endoplasmic reticulum

internal transport system of the cell, modifies proteins, and synthesizes lipids

Golgi apparatus

stack of membranes that modify proteins and creates "packages" to send them to other locations

lysosome

filled with enzymes to breakdown dead cell parts and foreign objects; only found in animal cells

ribosome

synthesizes proteins

vacuole

stores water and nutrients for the cell; very large in plant cells

chloroplast

uses sunlight to make carbohydrates in plants, some bacteria and protists

centriole

organize the spindle fibers to separate chromosomes during animal cell mitosis

cytoskeleton

network of proteins in the cytoplasm that help cell maintain its shape

cilium

hairlike projections that help some cells move

flagellum

whiplike structure some cells use for propulsion

pseudopod

projection of cytoplasm that some protists use for movement and feeding

prokaryote

cell without a nucleus, it contains a cell membrane, cytoplasm, and ribosomes; bacteria

eukaryote

cell with a nucleus and membrane bound organelles; animals, plants, protists, fungi

gene

section of DNA that codes for a protein and determines a trait

trait

specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another

segregation

separation of alleles during meiosis or gamete formation

gamete

sex cell; sperm or egg

true-breeding

inherited two identical alleles for a trait; homozygous or purebred

Punnett square

diagram that shows the possible results of a genetic cross; parents' gametes on top and left, offsprings' genotypes inside

independent assortment

principle that genes do not influence each other's inheritance because they are separated independently during meiosis

multiple alleles

three or more alleles exist for a particular trait

incomplete dominance

creates a blended phenotype; one allele is not completely dominant over the other

polygenic trait

trait controlled by two or more genes; shows a wide variety of phenotypes

codominance

both genes contribute to the phenotype of the organism, ex. spotted or striped

nondisjunction

error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes don't separate; gametes end up with wrong number of chromosomes

natural variation

differences among individuals of a species; results from mutation and sexual reproduction

adaptation

inherited characteristic that increases an organism's chance of survival

common descent

principle that all living things have a common ancestor

homologous structure

structures that have different mature forms but develop from the same embryonic tissues

vestigial organ

organ so reduced in size, it does not serve an important function; may be homologous to structures in other organisms

species

two organisms that are so similar they can interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring

speciation

formation of a new species as a result of reproductive isolation

reproductive isolation

separation of species that prevents them from interbreeding and producing fertile offspring

behavioral isolation

type of reproductive isolation in which two organisms have different mating rituals that prevent them from interbreeding

geographic isolation

type of reproductive isolation in which two populations are separated by geographic barries like mountains or bodies of water

temporal isolation

type of reproductive isolation in which two organisms reproduce at different times

biodiversity

variety of organisms that exist in the biosphere

taxonomy

classification of organisms

binomial nomenclature

two part scientfic name for an organism; its genus is listed first, followed by its species

genus

first part of an organism's scientific name

kingdom

second largest taxonomic group; there are six - animalia, plantae, protista, eubacteria, archaebacteria, fungi

domain

most inclusive taxonomic group, larger than kingdom; three exist - bacteria, archaea, eukaryota

Protista

a single celled plant or animal, ex. amoeba, paramecia, euglena

molecular clock

model that uses DNA comparisons to estimate how long two organisms evolved from a common ancestor

phylogenetic tree

diagram showing evolutionary relationships of organisms with a common ancestor; resembles a tree

cladogram

diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among organisms based on derived characters; resembles a timeline

divergent evolution

pattern of evolution in which two species become more and more dissimilar

Fungi

kingdom of hetertrophs that obtain nutrients through absorption, ex. mushrooms, yeasts

Eukaryota

domain of organisms that contain nuclei, includes animals, plants, fungi, and protists

ecology

study of interactions between organisms and their environment

ecosystem

all the organisms in a particular location, including their non-living environment

species

two organisms that are so similar they can interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring

population

members of a species in a defined area, smallest level that can evolve

biosphere

part of Earth that living organisms inhabit

community

populations of different organisms living in a defined area

autotroph

organism that makes its own food using sunlight or chemicals; producer

producer

organism that makes its own food using sunlight or chemicals; autotroph

photosynthesis

using sunlight and carbon dioxide to make food (carbohydrates)

chemosynthesis

using inorganic chemicals to make food (carbohydrates)

heterotroph

organism that relies on other organisms for food; consumer

consumer

organism that relies on other organisms for food; heterotroph

decomposer

organism that breaks down and absorbs nutrients from dead organisms

trophic level

step in a food chain, food web, or ecological pyramid

energy pyramid

diagram that shows the energy available to each trophic level in an ecosystem; 10% is passed on to upper levels, the rest is lost as heat

biogeochemical cycle

process in which nutrients are recycled through the biosphere, ex. carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous

evaporation

process by which liquid water turns into a gas (water vapor) when heated

transpiration

evaporation of water from plant leaves

nutrient

chemical that an organism needs to live

nitrogen fixation

process in which bacteria convert nitrogen gas into nitrogen compounds plants can use to make proteins

denitrification

conversion of nitrates in the soil by bacteria into nitrogen gas

greenhouse effect

heat reatined by the the gases of the Earth's atmosphere to maintain the Earth's temperature range

biotic factor

living factors or organisms that affect an ecosystem

abiotic factor

non-living factor that affects an ecosystem

habitat

where an organism lives

symbiosis

relationship in which two species live closely together

carrying capacity

largest number of individuals of a population that the environment can support

invasive (non-native) species

plants and animals that have migrated to areas where they did not originate; often displace native species by outcompeting them for resources

biodiversity

the variety of all living things in the biosphere

cellular respiration

process that breaks down food to make ATP and release carbon dioxide as waste

chemical bond

link formed by two electrons that binds atoms together; where the energy in a compound is stored

acid

compound that release H+ ions in solution; pH less than 7

base

compound that releases OH- ions in solution; pH greater than 7

monomer

building block or small unit of a polymer; can be linked into chains

polymer

large molecule made up of smaller building blocks or monomers

carbohydrate

contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; main source of energy for body, commonly end in "ose"

monosaccharide

building block of a carbohydrate; simple sugar

polysaccharide

large carbohydrate made up of monosaccharides, ex. starch and glycogen

lipid

huge molecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, and a little oxygen; includes fats, oils, and waxes

fatty acid

with glycerol, make up the building blocks of lipids

glycerol

with fatty acids, make up the building blocks of lipids

RNA

single stranded nucleic acid used for protein synthesis

DNA

double stranded nucleic acid that stores and transmits genetic information

protein

contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; makes up cell/body structures and enzymes

nucleotide

building block or monomer of a nucleic acid; commonly recognized by its nitrogen bases as A, T, C, or G

amino acid

building block or monomer of a protein

nucleic acid

contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorous; involved in protein synthesis

chemical reaction

process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals

reactant

chemical that enters a chemical reaction

product

chemical that results from a chemical reaction

activation energy

energy needed to start a reaction

catalyst

substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction

enzyme

specialized protein that speeds up a chemical reaction by decreasing activation energy; typically end in "ase"

substrate

reactant in a chemical reaction that happens in a living thing

denaturation

when an enzyme changes shape and no longer functions due to high temperatures or wrong pH

organic compound

compound that contains carbon bonded to hydrogen and is found in living things

starch

polysaccharide made up of a chain of glucose molecules; food storage molecule for plants

glycogen

compound used by animals to store carbohydrates in the liver and skeletal muscles

glucose

simple sugar that is used to make ATP through cellular respiration

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