Chapter 5: Integumentary System

Created by nkubilis 

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Androgen

Genetic term for an agent (usually a hormone, such as testosterone and androsterone) that stimulates development of male characteristics

Ductule

Very small duct

Homeostasis

State in which the regulatory mechanisms of the body maintain an internal environment within tolerable levels, despite changes in the external environment

Scrotum

Pouch of skin in the male that contains the testicles

Synthesis

Formation of a complex substance by the union of simpler compounds or elements

Synthesize

To produce by synthesis

adip/o

fat

steat/o

fat

adiposis

abnormal condition of fat

lipocele

hernia containing fat

steatitis

inflammation of fatty (adipose) tissue

cutane/o

skin

dermat/o

skin

derm/o

skin

subcutaneous

pertaining to beneath the skin

dermatoplasty

surgical repair of the skin

hypodermic

pertaining to under the skin

hidr/o

sweat

sudor/o

sweat

hidradenitis

inflammation of the sweat glands

sudoresis

profuse sweating

ichthy/o

dry, scaly

ichthyosis

abnormal condition of dry or scaly skin

kerat/o

horny tissue; hard; cornea

melan/o

black

melanoma

black tumor

myc/o

fungus

dermatomycosis

fungal infection of the skin

onych/o

Nail

onychomalacia

softening of the nail

ungu/o

nail

ungual

pertaining to the skin

pil/o

hair

pilonidal

pertaining to hair in a nest

trich/o

hair

trichopathy

disease involving the hair

scler/o

hardening; sclera (white of eye)

scleroderma

hardening of the skin

seb/o

sebum, sebaceous

seborrhea

discharge of sebum

squam/o

scale

squamous

pertaining to scales (or covered with scales)

xen/o

foreign, strange

xenograft

skin transplantation from a foreign donor (usually a pig) for a human; also called heterograph

xeroderma

Dry skin

-cyte

cell

-derma

skin

-logist

specialist in the study of

-logy

study of

-therapy

treatment

an-

without, not

dia-

through, across

epi-

above, upon

homo-

same

hyper-

excessive,above normal

sub-

under, below

Grade I Tumor

Tumor cells well differentiated

Grade I Tumor Characteristics

Close resemblance of tissue of origin, thus, retaining some specialized function

Grade II Tumor

Tumor Cells moderately differentiated

Grade II Tumor Characteristics

Less Resemblance of tissue of origin
More variation in size and shape of tumor cells
Increased mitoses

Grade III Tumor

Tumor cells poorly to very poorly differentiated

Grade III Tumor Characteristics

Only remotely resembles tissue of origin
Marked variations in shape and size of tumor cells
Greatly increased mitoses

Grade IV Tumor

Tumor cells very poorly differentiated

Grade IV Tumor Characteristics

Little or no resemblance to tissue of origin
Extreme variation in size and shape of tumor cells

T0

no evidence of tumor

Tis

Stage I
Carcinoma in situ indicates the tumor is in a defined location and shows no invasion into surrounding tissues

T1, T2, T3, T4

Stage II
Primarry tumor size and extent of local invasion, where TI is small with minimal invasion and T4 is large with extensive local invasion into surrounding organs and tissues

N0

Regional lymph nodes show no abnormalities

N1, N2, N3, N4

Stage III
Degree of lymph node involvement and spread to regional lymph nodes where N1 is less involvement with minimal spreading and N4 is more involvement with extensive spreading

M0

No evidence of metastasis

MI

Stage IV
Indicates Metastasis

Abcess

localized collection of pus at the site of an infection

Acne

Inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles of the skin with characteristic lesions that include blackheads (comedos), inflammatory papules, pustules, nodules, and cysts; usually associated with seborrhea; also called acne vulgaris

Alopecia

Partial or complete loss of hair resulting from normal aging, an endocrine disorder, a drug reaction, anticancer medication, or a skin disease; commonly called baldness

Bowen Disease

Form of intraepidermal carcinoma (squamous cell) characterized by red-brown scaly or crusted lesions that resemble a patch of psoriasis or dermatitis; also called Bowen precancerous dermatosis

Cellulitis

Diffuse (widespread), acute infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue

Chloasma

Pigmentary skin discoloration usually occurring in yellowish brown patches or spots

Comedo

Typically small skin lesion of acne vulgaris caused by accumulation of keratin, bacteria, and dried sebum plugging an excretory duct of the skin

Dermatomycosis

Infection of the skin caused by fungi

Ecchymosis

Skin discoloration consisting of a large, irregularly formed hemorrhagic area with colors changing from blue-black to greenish brown or yellow; commonly called a bruise

Eczema

Chronic skin inflammation characterized by erythema, papules, vesicles, pustules, scales, crusts, scabs and possibly itching

Erythema

Redness of the skin caused by swelling of the capillaries

Eschar

Damaged tissue following a severe burn

Impetigo

Bacterial skin infection characterized by isolated pustules that become crusted and rupture

Keratosis

Thickened area of the epidermis or any horny growth on the skin (such as a callus or wart)

Lentigo

Small brown macules, especially on the face and arms, brought on by sun exposure, usually in middle aged or older person

Pallor

Unnatural paleness or absence of color in the skin

Pediculosis

Infestation with lice, transmitted by personal contact or common use of brushes, combs, or headgear

Petechia

Minute, pinpoint hemorrhage under the skin

Pressure Ulcer

Skin ulceration caused by prolonged pressure from lying in one position that prevents blood flow to the tissues, usually in bedridden patients; also known as decubitus ulcer

Pruritus

intense Itching

Psoriasis

Chronic skin disease characterized by circumscribed red patches covered by thick, dry, silvery, adherent scales caused by excessive development of the basal layer of the epidermis

Purpura

Any of several bleeding disorders characterized by hemorrhage into the tissue, particularly beneath the skin or mucous membrane, producing ecchymoses or petechiae

Scabies

contagious skin disease transmitted by the itch mite,commonly through sexual contact

Tinea

Fungal skin infection whose name commonly indicates the body part affected; commonly called ringworm

Urticaria

Allergic reaction of the skin characterized by the eruption of pale red,elevated patches called wheals or hives

Verruca

Epidermal growth caused by a virus; also known as warts. Types include plantar warts, juvenile warts and venereal warts

Vitiligo

localized loss of skin pigmentation characterized by milk-white patches

Skin Test

Any test in which a suspected allergen or sensitizer is applied to or injected into the skin to determine the patient's sensitivity to it

Intradermal (Skin Test)

Skin test that identifies suspected allergens by subcutaneously injecting small amounts of extracts of the suspected allergens and observing the skin for a subsequent reaction

Patch (Skin Test)

Skin test that identifies suspected allergens by topical application of the substance to be tested (such as food, pollen, and animal fur), usually on the forearm, and observing for a subsequent reaction

Scratch (Prick), Skin Test

Skin test that identifies suspected allergens by placing a small quantity of the suspected allergen on a lightly scratched area of the skin

Chemical Peel

Chemical removal of the outer layers of skin to treat acne scarring and general keratoses; also called chemabrasion

Debridement

Removal of necrotized tissue from a wound by surgical excision, enzymes, or chemical agents

Dermabrasion

Rubbing (abrasion) using wire brushes or sandpaper to mechanically scrape away (abrade) the epidermis

Fulguration

Tissue destruction by means of high-frequency electric current; also called electrodesiccation

Cyrosurgery

Use of subfreezing temperature (commonly liquid nitrogen) to destroy or eliminate abnormal tissue, such as tumors, warts and unwanted cancerous or infected tissue

Skin Graft

Surgical procedure to transplant healthy tissue by applying it to an injured site

Allograft (Skin Graft)

Transplantation of healthy tissue from one site to another site in the same individual

Autograft (Skin Graft)

Transplantation of healthy tissue from one site to another site in the same individual

Synthetic (Skin Graft)

Transplantation of artificial skin produced from collagen fibers arranged in a lattice pattern

Xenograft (Skin Graft)

Transplantation (dermis only) from a foreign donor (usually a pig) and transferred to a human; also called heterograft

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