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whisks

used for incorporating mixtures that are not too dense, balloon type are used to incorporate air into mixtures or eggs

chinois

conical strainer with a handle

rotissoire

large, rectangular, heavy bottomed pan with low to medium-high sides and two handles

julienne

a long cut

brunoise

1 mm cube made from julienne cut

chiffonade

a cutting method that produces thin strips (ribbons) of herbs or leafy vegetables

slurry

raw starch combined with cold liquid

glaze

stocks that are reduced by 9/10 to a syrupy consistency and intense flavor

mother sauces

bechamel, espagnole, tomato, hollandaise, veloute

consomme

a stock from which all tiny impurities have been removed (clear, sparking broth)

clarification

the process in which a stock is made more flavorful and perfectly clear

puree

a potage in which liquid and some fresh or dried vegetables are cooked together and then thickened with the pureed vegetable

pickling

this process preserves food with vinegar or fermentation

dry cure

this process involves rubbing an item with salt and leaving to sit for a specific period of time (usually fish, sometimes meat)

liquid cure

this process involves submerging an item in brine

brine

a mixture of water, salt, sugar and spice (80% salt)

pasteurization

this process (used for liquids) involves heating to 180^F to destroy disease-causing bacteria and then rapidly cooled

bisques

a seasoned shellfish puree flavored with white wine, cognac and heavy cream

simple salads

salads made with one main ingredient and dressed appropriately

mixed salads

salads made with a mixture of several ingredients combined and seasoned together

composed salads

salads that feature several ingredients seasoned separately and presented together on one plate

vinaigrette

oil + vinegar + salt + pepper

extra virgin olive oil

olive oil with less than one percent acidity

virgin olive oil

olive oil with less than three percent acidity

peanut oil

heavy oil that is used for frying, deep frying, emulsions and southern style roux. Not suitable for dressing. Smoke point is 450^F

sesame oil

light and mild oil made from raw (light) or toasted (dark) sesame seeds. Smoke point is 410^F

corn oil

bland oil that is an excellent general purpose cooking oil. Smoke point of 410^F

canola oil

Canadian rapeseed oil that is low in saturated fats and lacks flavor. Smoke point is 435^F

red wine vinegar

sharp, sweet and full bodied vinegar. Compliments tart, strong greens

white wine vinegar

vinegar sweet and clean tasting vinegar. Compliments mild greens

balsamic vinegar

smooth, sweet and sour flavored vinegar made in Modena Italy.

rice wine vinegar

sharp and tangy (Chinese) or smooth and mellow (Japanese) vinegar produced from rice

glazing

similar to cooking a l'etuvee, but a small amount of sugar is added and the liquid is reduced to form a shiny, sweet coating

pommes

a word for potatoes

hollandaise

egg yolks, clarified butter, lemon juice, salt, cayenne pepper

tartar

hard boiled egg yolks, oil, vinegar, puree of scallions or chives

Broth

a flavorful liquid obtained from the long simmering of meats and/or vegetables.

Stock

a clear, unthickened liquid flavored by soluble substances extracted from meat, poultry or fish and their bones as well as from a mirepoix, other vegetables and seasonings.

Gratin

Foods with a browned or crusted top

Medium

warm pink center, otherwise brown

Medium Rare

a warm red center, otherwise pink

Medium well

mostly brown with a gray center, very little if any pink

Rare

a cool red center; pink otherwise

Well done

Brown throughout with no sign of pink

Tournedos

thick steak cut from the beef tenderloin

Poach

cook in a simmering liquid

Simmer

temperature just below the boiling point

Baste

To spoon liquid or fat over food as it cooks

Caramelize

To cook to the browned stage (sugar, onions)

Truss

To secure the wings and legs of poultry with twine and pin

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