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Microbiology Chapters 4-6

Bacterial cells could have any of the following appendages except:

Cilia

Spirochetes have a twisting and flexing locomotion due to appendages called:

Perisplasmic Flagella (axial filaments)

The short, numerous appendages used by some bacterial cells for adhering to cell surfaces are called:

Fimbriae

The transfer of genes during bacterial conjugation involves rigid, tubular appendages called

Sex pili

All bacterial cells have:

A chromosome

The terms that refers to the presence of glagella all over the cell surface is:

Peritrichous

An important indicator of evolutionary relatedness is to determine:

Nitrogen base sequence of rRNA

Which is mismatched:

Tenericutes - waxy acid fast cell walls

Which is Mismatched:

Green sulfur bacteria - photosynthetic anaerobes that use sulfur in metabolism

The presence of thylakoids, phycocyanin, gas inclusions and cysts would be associated with

Cyanobacteria

archaea do not have th etypical peptidoglycan structure found in bacteria cell walls:

False

Bacteria in the genus Mycoplasma and bacteria called L-forms lack cell walls:

True

Gram negative bacteria do not have peptidoglycan in their cell walls:

False

The function of bacterial endospores is:

Protection of genetic material during harsh conditions

Chemical analysis of a bacterial cell structure detects calcium dipicolinic acid. What is the identity of this structure:

Endospore

Endospores are

All of the above

Which term is not used to describe bacterial cell shapes:

Tetrad

Serological analysis for bacterial identification typically involves using:

Specific antibodies to the bacterial cell antigens

The periplasmic space is:

An important reaction site for substances entering and leaving the cell

Which of the following, pertaining to prokaryotic cell membranes is mismatched:

Glycocalyx - regulates transport of nutrients and waste

The site for most ATP synthesis in prokaryotic cells is the:

Cell Membrane

The bacterial chromosome:

Is part of the nucleoid

Which is mismatched:

Plasmids - genes essential for growth and metabolism

Magnetosomes are:

Composed of magnetic iron oxide particles

All of the following structures contribute to the ability of pathogenic bacteria to call disease except:

Inclusions

A prokaryotic cell wll that has primarily peptidoglycan with small amounts of teichoic acid and lipotiechoic acid is:

Gram positive

A bacterial genus that has a waxy mycolic acid in the cell walls is:

Mycobacterium

All of the following pertain to endotoxins except:

Found in acid fast bacterial cell walls

The difference in cell wall structure of Mycobacterium and Nocardia compared to the typical gram positive bacterial cell structure is:

Predominance of unique, waxy, lipids

Lipopolysaccharide is an important cell wall component of:

Gram Negative Bacteria

The outcome of the Gram stain is based on differences in the cell's:

Cell Wall

The most immediate result of destruction of a cell's ribosomes would be:

Protein synthesis would stop

A bacterial cell exhibiting chemotaxis probably has:

Flagella

Which structure protects bacteria from being phagocytized:

Capsule

If bacteria living in salty seawater were displaced to a freshwater environment, the cell structure that would prevent the cell from rupturing is:

Cell Wall

Peptidoglycan is a unique macromolecule found in bacterial:

Cell Walls

Hot carbol fuchin is the primary dye in the acid fast stain:

True

The region between the bacterial cell membrane and the cell wall is called the outer membrane:

True

The prokaryotic cell membrane is a site for many enzymes and metabolic reactions:

True

If during the gram stain procedure, the bacterial cells were viewed immediately after crystal violet was applied, gram positive cells would be purple but gram negative cells would be colorless:

False

Endospores of certain bacterial species can enter tissue in the human body, germinate, and cause an infectious disease:

True

Iodine is the decolorizer in the Gram stain

False

If you observe rod shaped, pink cells on a slide that had just been gram stained, you can assume that their cell walls contain endotoxins:

False

The term diplococci refers to an irregular cluster of spherical bacterial cells:

False

Protists include

Algea and protozoa

The eukaryotic cell organelle that most resembels a bacterial cell is the:

Mitochondria

Eukaryotic flagella differ from prokaryotic flagella because only eukaryotic flagella:

Contain microtubules

Cilia are found in certain:

Protozoa

Chitin is a chemical component of the cell walls of:

Fungi

Cell walls are not found on typical cells of:

Protozoa

the site for ribosomal RNA synthesis is the

Nucleolus

When a eukaryotic cell is not undergoing mitosis, the DNA and its associated proteins appear as a visible thread-like mass called the:

Chromatin

Histones are:

Proteins associated with DNA in the nucleus

The Eukaryotic cell's glycocalyx is:

Mostly Polysaccharide

Which of the following is found in eukaryotic cells but not in prokaryotic cells:

All of the choices are correct

The endosymbiotic theory says that precursor eukaryotic cells acquired flagella by endosymbiosis with a ______ ancestor, and others gained photosynthetic ability from endosymbiosis with a ________ ancestor:

Spirochete, Cyanobacteria

The cell's series of tunnel-like membranes functioning in transport and storage are the:

Endoplasmic reticulum

An organelle that is a stack of flattened, membraneous sacs and functions to receive, modify and package proteins for cell secretion is the:

Golgi apparatus

Which organelle contains cristae where enzymes and electrons carries for aerobic respiration are found:

Mitochondria

Organelles found in algae but not found in protozoa or fungi are the:

Chloroplasts

Protists with contractile vacuoles:

Use them to expel water from the cell

The cytoskeleton:

All of the choices are correct

The size of a eukaryotic cell ribosome is

80S

Filamentous fungi are called

Molds

When buds remain attached, they form a chain of yeast cells called:

Pseudohyphae

Fungi that grow as yeast at one temperature but will grow as mold at another temperature is called:

Diamorphic

Fungal spores:

Are only asexually produced

Which is not a characteristic of fungi

Photosynthetic

Blooms of certain dinoflagellates are associated with all of the following except:

Euglenids

Which is mismatched

Pyrrophyta-Euglenids

All of the following are found in some or all protozoa except:

Cell wall

The motile, feeding stage of protozoa is called the

Trophozoite

the group of protozoa that have flagella are the

Mastigophora

Which is mismatched

Plasmodium - causes Chagis Disease

All of the following are helminths except:

Trypanosomes

Which of the following does not pertain to helminths:

In kingdom Protista

Larvae and eggs are developmental forms of:

Helminths

The eukaryotic cell membrane is a bilayer of sterols:

False

Infections caused by fungi are called mycoses:

True

All fungi have hyphae

False

All algae have chloroplasts

False

Algae are classified into divisions based principally on their type of motility:

False

Viruses have the following except:

Metabolism

Host cells of viruses include:

All of the above

The core of every virus particle always contains:

Either DNA or RNA

Classification of viruses into families involves determining all the following characteristics except:

Biochemical reactions

Which of the following represents a virus family name:

Herpesviridae

Virus capsids are made from subunits called:

Capsomeres

Helical and icosahedral are terms used to describe the shapes of a virus:

Capsid

Viruses:

Cannot be seen in a light microscope

all of the following pertain to virus envelopes except:

Located between the capsid and nucleic acid

Which of the following is not associated with every virus:

Envelope

These structures are used by bacteriophages to attach to host cell receptors:

Tail fibers

Which is incorrect about prophages:

Cause lysis of host cells

T-even phages:

infect Escherichia coli cells

The correct sequence of events in viral multiplication is:

Adsorption, penetration, replication, assembly, maturation, release (C)

The even that occurs in bacteriophage multiplication that does not occur in animal virus replication is:

Injection of the viral nucleic acid into the host cell

Viruses acquire envelopes around their nucleocapsids during

Release

Which of the following will not support viral cultivation

Blood Agar

In general, most DNa viruses multiply in the host cell's ____________, while most RNA viruses multiply in the host cells ________.

Nucleus, Cytoplasm

Host range is limited by:

Type of host cell receptors on cell membrane

The virus-induced, specific damage to the host cell that can be seen in a light microscope is called:

Plaques

Visible, clear, well-defined patches in a monolayer of virus-infected cells in a culture are called:

Plaques

Viral growth in bird embryos can cause discrete, opaque spots in the embryonic membranes called:

Pocks

Viruses that cause infection resulting in alternating periods of activity with symptoms and inactivity without symptoms are called:

Latent

Oncogenic viruses include all of the following except:

Measles virus

Which of the following is a true type of cytopathic effect:

all of the choices are correct

Uncoating of viral nucleic acid:

All of the choices are correct

Infectious protein particles are called

Prions

Infectious naked strans of RNA are called

Viroids

Creutzfeld-Jacob disease is

A spongiform encephalopathy of humans

A naked virus does not have an envelope

True

Viruses are multramicroscopic because they range in size from 2?M to 450?M

False

Spikes are glycoproteins of the virus capsid.

False

Prophages can be activated into viral replication and entering the lytic cycle

True

A specific animal virus has the ability to attach to and enter almost any animal host cell:

False

Each virus is assigned to a genus status based on its host, target tissue and type of disease it causes.

True

Bacteriophages to not undergo adsorption to specific host cell receptors prior to penetration.

False

When a virus enters a host cell, the viral genes, redirect the genetic and metabolic activities of the host cell:

True

Viral spikes are inserted into the host cell membrane before budding or exocytosis:

False

Viruses are used to produce vaccines for prevention of certain viral infections:

True

One of the principal capsid shapes is a 20-sided figure with 12 evently spaced corners referred to as an __________ capsid.

Icosahedral

A _________ is the protein shell around the nucleic acid core of a virus.

Capsid

Viruses that infect bacteria are specifically called _________.

Phages

Diagnosis of viral infections sometimes involve analyzing the patient's blood for specific __________ that the immune system produced against the virus.

Antibodies

Two noncellular agents, smaller than viruses, are the infectious proteins called _________, and the infectious RNA strands called _______.

Prions, Viroids

During lysogeny, an inactive prophage state occurs when the viral DNA is inserted into the bacterial _____ _________.

Host chromosome

A common method for cultivating viruses in the lab is to use in vitro systems called __________ cultures.

Cell

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