A subdivision of flowering plants whose members possess one embryonic seed leaf, or cotyledon.
Any of a large subgroup of traditionally dicot angiosperms, including roses, peas, buttercups, sunflowers, oaks, and maples.
Growth produced by apical meristems, which lengthen stems and roots.
Growth produced by lateral meristems, which thickens the roots and shoots of woody plants.
A meristem that thickens the roots and shoots of woody plants. The vascular cambium and cork cambium are lateral meristems.
A cylinder of meristematic tissue in woody plants that adds layers of secondary vascular tissue called secondary xylem (wood) and secondary phloem.
Vascular plant tissue consisting mainly of tubular dead cells that conduct most of the water and minerals upward from roots to the rest of the plant.
Vascular plant tissue consisting of living cells arranged into elongated tubes that transport sugar and other organic nutrients throughout the plant.
A cylinder of meristematic tissue in woody plants that replaces the epidermis with thicker, tougher cork cells.
Plant tissue that remains embryonic as long as the plant lives, allowing for indeterminate growth.
Increase the surface area for absorbtion
Vascular tissue system
consists of xylem and phloem and functions in long-distance transport.
Ground tissue system
contains cells that function in photosynthesis, support, and storage.
ground tissue internal to vascular tissue
ground tissue external to vascular tissue
carry on most of a plant's metabolic functions, such as photosynthesis and food storage. They usually lack secondary walls and have large central vacuoles. Most retain the ability to divide and differentiate into other types of plant cells
Lack secondary walls but have thickened primary walls. Strands or cylinders of these cells funtion in flexible support for young parts of the plant and elongate along with the plant.
have thick secondary walls strengthened with lignin. These specialized supporting cells often lost their protoplasts at maturity.
Long, tapered cells that usually occur in threads
Shorter and irregular in shape, with very thick, lignified cell walls.
consists of one main vertical root that develops from an embryonic root.
fibrous root system
a mat of generally this roots spraeding out below the soil surface, with no root standing out as the mian one.
Any plant part that grows in an unusual location.
organ consisting of an alternating system of nodes and internodes.
the points at which leaves are attached
the stem segments between nodes
a structure that has the potential to form a lateral shoot, comonly called a branch,
Embryonic tissue a thte tip of a shoot, made up of developing leaves and a compact series of nodes and internodes.
The proximity of the terminal bud is partly responsible for inhibiting the growth of axillary buds.
main photosynthetic organ of most vascular plants.
system consists of one or more tissues organized into a functional unit connecting the organs of a plant.
dermal tissue system
the outer protective covering
single layer of tightly packed cells (dermal tissue)
protective tissues that replace the epidermis in older regions of stems and roots.
The vascular tissue of a root or stem
the cell contents exclusive of the cell walls
water-conducting cells that are elongated and dead at functional maturity. These are found in the xylem
water-conducting cells that are elonagated and dead at functional maturity. These normally accompany the thacheids
chains of cells in which nutrients are transported in the phloem
the end walls between sieve-tube members
nonconducting cells that are alongside each sieve-tube memeber.
growth occurs throughout the plant's life. Never stops.
organism stops growing at a certain size
plants that complete their life cycle in a year or less
plants that live two years
plants that live many years
perpetually embryonic tissues that allow indeterminate growth
located at the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots, provide additional cells that enable the plant to grow in length.
plants in which primary growth produces all of the plants body.
allows secondary growth
replaces the epidermis with periderm, which is thicker and tougher
Cells that remian as a sources of new cells
continue to divide until the cells they produce become specialized within developing tissues
primary plant body
the parts of the root and shoot systems produced by apical meristems
protects the apical meristem
allow CO2 exchange between the surrounding air and the photosynthetic cells inside the leaf
regulate the opening and closing of the pore
contains paranchyma cells specialized for photosynthesis.
consists of one or more layers of elongated cells on the upper part of the leaf.
allows gas flow. contains parenchyma cells
connections from vascular bundles in the stem, pass through petioles and into leaves.
protective enclosing over the vein consisting of one or more cell layers
secondary plant body
consists of the tissues produced by the vascualr cambium and cork cambium.
produce elongated cells such as the thracheids, vessel elements, and fibers of the xylem, as well as the sieve-tube members, companion cells, parenchyma, and fibers of the phloem
shorter and oriented perpendicular to the stem or root axis, produce vascular-radial files consisting mainly of parenchyma cells.
old layers of secondary xylem
the outer layers that still transport xylem sap.
small raised cirlces on the periderm
all tissue external to the vascular cambium
identifies how genes form the four types of floral organs