AP U.S. History: Chapters Twelve, Thirteen, and Fourteen Vocabulary.

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Battle of New Orleans

An important battle led by Andrew Jackson, and fought by a hodgepodge force of 7,000 sailors, regulars, pirates, and Frenchmen, in which 8,000 overconfident British soldiers who had launched a frontal attack were defeated. News of the astonishing American victory was said to have struck the country "like a clap of thunder." The United States had earned back its honor and had boosted nationalism.

Treaty of Ghent

Signed on Christmas Eve of 1814, it was essentially an armistice which halted the fighting and restored conquered territory. However, many main issues which had fueled the war were left unmentioned, including impressment, Indian menace, search and seizure, and Orders in Council.

Rush-Bagot Agreement

The 1817 Treaty which, after a heated naval arms race in the Great Lakes, the world's largest unfortified boundary, running between the U.S. and Canada, was established. The treaty established strict limits on naval armaments in the Great Lakes, a first step in the full demilitarization of the U.S.-Canadian border, completed in the 1870s.

The American System

Henry Clay's three-pronged system to promote American industry. Clay advocated a strong banking system which would provide easy and abundant credit; and a protective tariff which would fund a federally funded transportation network of roads and canals, which would effectively knit the country together economically and politically.

The Era of Good Feelings

The name for the period of one-party—Republican—rule during James Monroe's presidency. However, this term obscures the bitter conflicts which were present over internal improvements, slavery and the national bank. That name was "something of a misnomer."

The Panic of 1819

Severe financial crisis brought on primarily by the efforts of the Bank of the United States to curb overspeculation on western lands. It disproportionately affected the poorer classes, especially in the West, sowing the seeds of Jacksonian Democracy.

The Missouri Compromise

Allowed Missouri to enter as a slave state but preserved the balance between North and South by carving free-soil Maine out of Massachusetts and prohibiting slavery from territories acquired in the Louisiana Purchase, north of the line of 36°30.

The Monroe Doctrine

Statement delivered by President James Monroe, warning European powers to refrain from seeking any new territories in the Americas. The United States largely lacked the power to back up the pronouncement, which was actually enforced by the British, who sought unfettered access to Latin American markets. In return, the U.S. would not interfere with the Greek democratic revolt against Turkey. It was significantly influenced by John Quincy Adams.

Ancient Order of Hibernians (mid-nineteenth century)

Irish semi-secret society that served as a benevolent organization for downtrodden Irish immigrants in the United States. (311)

Awful Disclosures (1836)

Maria Monk's sensational expose of alleged horrors in Catholic convents. Its popularity reflected nativist fears of Catholic influence. (314)

clipper ships (1840s-1850s)

Small, swift vessels that gave American shippers an advantage in the carrying trade. Clipper ships were made largely obsolete by the advent of sturdier, roomier iron steamers on the eve of the Civil War. (332)

Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842)

Massachusetts Supreme Court decision that strengthened the labor movement by upholding the legality of unions. (324)

cult of domesticity

Pervasive nineteenth century cultural creed that venerated the domestic role of women. It gave married women greater authority to shape home life but limited opportunities outside the domestic sphere. (325)

ecological imperialism

Historians' term for the spoliation of Western natural resources through excessive hunting, logging, mining, and grazing. (307)

Erie Canal (completed 1825)

New York state canal that linked Lake Erie to the Hudson River. It dramatically lowered shipping costs, fueling an economic boom in upstate New York and increasing the profitability of farming in the Old Northwest. (329)

Know-Nothing party (1850s)

Nativist political party, also known as the American party, which emerged in response to an influx of immigrants, particularly Irish Catholics. (314)

limited liability

Legal principle that facilitates capital investment by offering protection for individual investors, who, in cases of legal claims or bankruptcy, cannot be held responsible for more than the value of their individual shares. (321)

market revolution

Eighteenth and nineteenth century transformation from a disaggregated, subsistence economy to a national commercial and industrial network. (335)

McCormick reaper (1831)

Mechanized the harvest of grains, such as wheat, allowing farmers to cultivate larger plots. The introduction of the reaper in the 1830s fueled the establishment of large-scale commercial agriculture in the Midwest. (328)

Molly Maguires (1860s-1870s)

Secret organization of Irish miners that campaigned, at times violently, against poor working conditions in the Pennsylvania mines. (311)

Pony Express (1860-1861)

Short-lived, speedy mail service between Missouri and California that relied on lightweight riders galloping between closely-placed outposts. (333)

rendezvous

The principal marketplace of the Northwest fur trade, which peaked in the 1820s and 1830s. Each summer, traders set up camps in the Rocky Mountains to exchange manufactured goods for beaver pelts. (307)

Tammany Hall (established 1789)

Powerful New York political machine that primarily drew support from the city's immigrants, who depended on Tammany Hall patronage, particularly social services. (311)

transportation revolution

Term referring to a series of nineteenth century transportation innovations-turnpikes, steamboats, canals and railroads-that linked local and regional markets, creating a national economy. (334)

Anglo-American Convention (1818)

Signed by Britain and the United States, the pact allowed New England fishermen access to Newfoundland fisheries, established the northern border of Louisiana territory and provided for the joint occupation of the Oregon Country for ten years. (265)

Cohens v. Virginia (1821)

Case that reinforced federal supremacy by establishing the right of the Supreme Court to review decisions of state supreme courts in questions involving the powers of the federal government. (263)

Congress of Vienna (1814-1815)

Convention of major European powers to redraw the boundaries of continental Europe after the defeat of Napoleonic France. (252)

Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)

Supreme Court case that sustained Dartmouth University's original charter against changes proposed by the New Hampshire state legislature, thereby protecting corporations from domination by state governments. (264)

Era of Good Feelings (1816-1824)

Popular name for the period of one-party, Republican, rule during James Monroe's presidency. The term obscures bitter conflicts over internal improvements, slavery and the national bank. (258)

Fletcher v. Peck (1810)

Established firmer protection for private property and asserted the right of the Supreme Court to invalidate state laws in conflict with the federal Constitution. (264)

Florida Purchase Treaty (Adams-Onís Treaty) (1819)

Under the agreement, Spain ceded Florida to the United States, which, in exchange, abandoned its claims to Texas. (267)

Ghent, Treaty of (1815)

Ended the War of 1812 in a virtual draw, restoring prewar borders but failing to address any of the grievances that first brought America into the war. (252)

Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)

Suit over whether New York State could grant a monopoly to a ferry operating on interstate waters. The ruling reasserted that Congress had the sole power to regulate interstate commerce. (263)

Hartford Convention (1814-1815)

Convention of Federalists from five New England states who opposed the War of 1812 and resented the strength of Southern and Western interests in Congress and in the White House. (253)

Land Act of 1820

Fueled the settlement of the Northwest and Missouri territories by lowering the price of public land. Also prohibited the purchase of federal acreage on credit, thereby eliminating one of the causes of the Panic of 1819. (259)

loose construction

Legal doctrine which holds that the federal government can use powers not specifically granted or prohibited in the Constitution to carry out its constitutionally-mandated responsibilities. (263)

McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)

Supreme Court case that strengthened federal authority and upheld the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States by establishing that the State of Maryland did not have power to tax the bank. (263)

Missouri Compromise (1820)

Allowed Missouri to enter as a slave state but preserved the balance between North and South by carving free-soil Maine out of Massachusetts and prohibiting slavery from territories acquired in the Louisiana Purchase, north of the line of 36°30. (263)

Monroe Doctrine (1823)

Statement delivered by President James Monroe, warning European powers to refrain from seeking any new territories in the Americas. The United States largely lacked the power to back up the pronouncement, which was actually enforced by the British, who sought unfettered access to Latin American markets. (268)

New Orleans, Battle of (January 1815)

Resounding victory of American forces against the British, restoring American confidence and fueling an outpouring of nationalism. Final battle of the War of 1812. (252)

panic of 1819

Severe financial crisis brought on primarily by the efforts of the Bank of the United States to curb overspeculation on western lands. It disproportionately affected the poorer classes, especially in the West, sowing the seeds of Jacksonian Democracy. (258)

peculiar institution

Widely used term for the institution of American slavery in the South. Its use in the first half of the 19th century reflected a growing division between the North, where slavery was gradually abolished, and the South, where slavery became increasingly entrenched. (262)

Rush-Bagot agreement (1817)

Signed by Britain and the United States, it established strict limits on naval armaments in the Great Lakes, a first step in the full demilitarization of the U.S.-Canadian border, completed in the 1870s. (255)

Russo-American Treaty (1824)

Fixed the line of 54°40' as the southernmost boundary of Russian holdings in North America. (269)

Tallmadge amendment (1819)

Failed proposal to prohibit the importation of slaves into Missouri territory and pave the way for gradual emancipation. Southerners vehemently opposed the amendment, which they perceived as a threat to the sectional balance between North and South. (259)

Tariff of 1816

First protective tariff in American history, created primarily to shield New England manufacturers from the inflow of British goods after the War of 1812. (256)

War of 1812 (1812-1815)

Fought between Britain and the United States largely over the issues of trade and impressment. Though the war ended in a relative draw, it demonstrated America's willingness to defend its interests militarily, earning the young nation newfound respect from European powers. (248)

Alamo

Fortress in Texas where four hundred American volunteers were slain by Santa Anna in 1836. "Remember the Alamo" became a battle cry in support of Texan independence. (294)

Anti-Masonic party (established c. 1826)

First founded in New York, it gained considerable influence in New England and the mid-Atlantic during the 1832 election, campaigning against the politically influential Masonic order, a secret society. Anti-Masons opposed Andrew Jackson, a Mason, and drew much of their support from evangelical Protestants. (288)

Bank War (1832)

Battle between President Andrew Jackson and Congressional supporters of the Bank of the United States over the bank's renewal in 1832. Jackson vetoed the Bank Bill, arguing that the bank favored moneyed interests at the expense of western farmers. (286)

Black Hawk War (1832)

Series of clashes in Illinois and Wisconsin between American forces and Indian chief Black Hawk of the Sauk and Fox tribes, who unsuccessfully tried to reclaim territory lost under the 1830 Indian Removal Act. (285)

compromise Tariff of 1833

Passed as a measure to resolve the nullification crisis, it provided that tariffs be lowered gradually, over a period of ten years, to 1816 levels. (282)

corrupt bargain

Alleged deal between presidential candidates John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay to throw the election, to be decided by the House of Representatives, in Adams' favor. Though never proven, the accusation became the rallying cry for supporters of Andrew Jackson, who had actually garnered a plurality of the popular vote in 1824. (273)

Force Bill (1833)

Passed by Congress alongside the Compromise Tariff, it authorized the president to use the military to collect federal tariff duties. (283)

Goliad

Texas outpost where American volunteers, having laid down their arms and surrendered, were massacred by Mexican forces in 1836. The incident, along with the slaughter at the Alamo, fueled American support for Texan independence. (294)

Indian Removal Act (1830)

Ordered the removal of Indian Tribes still residing east of the Mississippi to newly established Indian Territory west of Arkansas and Missouri. Tribes resisting eviction were forcibly removed by American forces, often after prolonged legal or military battles. (285)

Nullification Crisis (1832-1833)

Showdown between President Andrew Jackson and the South Carolina legislature, which declared the 1832 tariff null and void in the state and threatened secession if the federal government tried to collect duties. It was resolved by a compromise negotiated by Henry Clay in 1833. (282)

panic of 1837

Economic crisis triggered by bank failures, elevated grain prices, and Andrew Jackson's efforts to curb overspeculation on western lands and transportation improvements. In response, President Martin Van Buren proposed the "Divorce Bill", which pulled treasury funds out of the banking system altogether, contracting the credit supply. (292)

pet banks

Popular term for pro-Jackson state banks that received the bulk of federal deposits when Andrew Jackson moved to dismantle the Bank of the United States in 1833. (290)

San Jacinto, Battle of (1836)

Resulted in the capture of Mexican dictator Santa Anna, who was forced to withdraw his troops from Texas and recognize the Rio Grande as Texas's Southwestern border. (295)

Specie Circular (1836)

U.S. Treasury decree requiring that all public lands be purchased with "hard", or metallic, currency. Issued after small state banks flooded the market with unreliable paper currency, fueling land speculation in the West. (290)

spoils system

Policy of rewarding political supporters with public office, first widely employed at the federal level by Andrew Jackson. The practice was widely abused by unscrupulous office seekers, but it also helped cement party loyalty in the emerging two-party system. (280)

Tariff of Abominations (1828)

Noteworthy for its unprecedentedly high duties on imports. Southerners vehemently opposed the Tariff, arguing that it hurt Southern farmers, who did not enjoy the protection of tariffs, but were forced to pay higher prices for manufactures. (280)

Trail of Tears (1838-1839)

Spurred by Jackson. Forced march of 15,000 Cherokee Indians from their Georgia and Alabama homes to Indian Territory. Some 4,000 Cherokee died on the arduous journey. (285)

Andrew Jackson

A polarizing figure who dominated the Second Party System in the 1820s and 1830s, as president he destroyed the national bank and relocated most Indian tribes from the Southeast to west of the Mississippi River. His enthusiastic followers created the modern Democratic Party. The 1830-1850 period later became known as the era of Jacksonian democracy.

John C. Calhoun

Andrew Jackson's vice president and a South Carolina Senator; an advocate of slavery, state's rights, limited government, and nullification. He was the one who passed laws for states to be able to withdraw from the union, transitively triggering the Civil War.

Henry Clay

Distinguished senator from Kentucky, who ran for president five times until his death in 1852. He was a strong supporter of the American System, a war hawk for the War of 1812, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and known as "The Great Compromiser." Outlined the Compromise of 1850 with five main points. Died before it was passed however. He devised the American System. He was also responsible for the Missouri Compromise.

Martin VanBuren

Served as secretary of state during Andrew Jackson's first term, vice president during Jackson's second term, and won the presidency in 1836. He was a key figure in building Jacksonian democracy. He was the eighth president.

The American System

A mercantilist economic plan that played a prominent role in American policy during the first half of the 19th century. Rooted in the ideas of Alexander Hamilton, the plan consisted of three mutually reinforcing parts: a tariff to protect and promote American industry; a strong national bank with easy credit to foster commerce; which federally funded roads, canals, and other 'internal improvements' to develop profitable markets for agriculture. That new transportation system united the country politically and economically, allowing for facilitated trade.

William Crawford

He was Secretary of Treasury under the James Monroe Presidency; he was expected to win as a canidate for Presidency in 1824 when he represented the South in this election. Originally from Georgia. He died from a stroke.

John Quincy Adams

Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams' work.

Daniel Webster

United States politician and orator (1782-1817) and leader of the Whig Party. He was originally pro-North. Supported the Compromise of 1850 and subsequently lost favor from his constituency. He actively opposed the financial policy of Jackson. Many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve System. Would later push for a strong union.

Nicholas Biddle

Was the president of the Second Bank of the United States. He made the bank's loan policy stricter and testified that, although the bank had enormous power, it didn't destroy small banks. The bank went out of business in 1836 amid controversy over whether the National Bank was constitutional and should be rechartered.

Stephen Austin

Known as the Father of Texas, he led the second and ultimately successful colonization of the region by bringing 300 families from the United States to that land of northern Mexico. Mexico gave him the land on three conditions: no slaves allowed, convert to Roman Catholic, and learn Spanish.

William H. Harrison

The whig who was elected president after Van Buren's first term, with the log cabin campaign. Died weeks after election. Served as the first territorial congressional delegate from the Northwest Territory, governor of the Indiana Territory and later as a U.S. representative and senator from Ohio. He originally gained national fame for leading U.S. forces against American Indians at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811, where he earned the nickname "Tippecanoe". promoted the passage of the Harrison Land Act, which made it easier for the average settler to buy land in the Northwest Territory by allowing land to be sold in small tracts. This sudden availability of inexpensive land was an important factor in the rapid population growth of the Northwest Territory.

Sam Houston

"Father of Texas." Got Texas from Mexico on the conditions that it would be a slave-free state, they would convert to Roman Catholicism, and they would learn to speak Spanish. United States politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States (1793-1863), First president of the Republic of Texas.

John Tyler

Vice-president under Harrison brought in to gain support of the South. His presidency was responsible for the veto against another Bank of the U.S and settled the Texas and Maine disputes in the country. He was in favor of state's rights, and a strict interpretation of the constitution. He opposed protective tariffs, a national bank and federally funded internal improvements.

Santa Anna

Mexican dictator and general who was in charge when war broke out between the Mexicans and Americans. He lost Texas to rebels, and was the leader of the armed forces during the war. He who lost battles to Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor throughout the Mexican War.

Black Hawk

The leader of the Illinois tribes of Indians in the 1830s. When the Indians were uprooted, and forced out of their homes, he led the Indians in resisting the move. However, he wasn't powerful enough, because in 1832 they were brutally defeated, and forced to move into Oklahoma.

William Travis

Commander of the defenders of the Alamo who was only 26 years old. He was determined to hold his position and managed to send messages through Mexican lines asking for assistance, but none came. He was killed in the Battle of the Alamo, and he was important because his death made Texas fight harder for their independence.

Denmark Vesey

A mulatto who inspired a group of slaves to seize Charleston, South Carolina in 1822, but one of them betrayed him and he and his thirty-seven followers were hanged before the revolt started. Ironically, slave uprisings often had an unintended effect: they supported an argument for why slave states should be maintained. To end slavery would prompt widespread rebellion.

annexation

The adding of a region to the territory of an existing political unit, such as adding the Louisiana territory to the united states.

anti-slavery

Opposed to the spread of slavery. Not abolitionists. Northerners were opposed to the South gaining more political power by adding more slaves. The Great Awakening increased such feelings.

favorite son

A candidate who receives the backing of his home states rather than that of the national party.

common man

The average American whose concerns are represented in government, or a political leader who works his way up to the top from the bottom. Andrew Jackson was the model common man. He had been orphaned, so he fought in the Revolutionary War at age thirteen. In the War of 1812, he became a hero and launched his political career soon after. He was like the rest of the country, and that's why they liked him so much. The common man began to take over during the Jacksonian Democracy.

nullification

The doctrine that a state can declare null and void (refuse to recognize and enforce) a federal law that, in the state's opinion, violates the Constitution.

spoils system

The practice of rewarding political supporters with government jobs. Jackson made this practice famous for the way he did it on a wide scale.

rotation in office

Jackson's system of periodically replacing officeholders to allow ordinary citizens to play a more prominent role in government, on the principle that "no one man has any more intrinsic right to office than another."

wildcat banks

The (unstable) speculative banks of the western frontier. These banks were hit hard by the Panic of 1819. The Bank of the United States' response to the panic of 1819 made the nationalist bank a financial devil in the eyes of wildcat banks. They issued paper money called wildcat currency to lend to speculators. They were operated under state charters and were especially numerous after Jackson defeated the second B.U.S. They didn't require collateral for loans so farmers took out loans, bought land, lost money on the land, defaulted on (failed to fulfill) their loans, and then the banks started to fail.

speculation

The process of purchasing land with higher risk in order to profit from an anticipated price movement. Overspeculation prompted a collapse of the wildcat banks and the economy of the west as a whole.

nationalism

A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country; the doctrine that your national culture and interests are superior to any other. Willingness to make sacrifices for the country.

minority president

Minority president is a president not elected by the popular vote but by the electoral majority. John Adams is first example of this. Significance: This greatly angered the people and led to the rough and tumble future democratic politics.

National Republicans

After the 1824 election, part of the Democratic - Republican party joined John Q. Adams, Clay, and Daniel Webster to oppose Andrew Jackson. They favored nationalistic measures like recharter of the Bank of the United States to shape the nation's economy..... high tariffs, and internal improvements at national expense (such as road building). They were supported mainly by Northwesterners and were not very successful. They were conservatives alarmed by Jackson's radicalness; they joined with the Whigs in the 1830s. Many were farmers or merchants.

Anti-Masonic Party

A 19th century minor political party in the United States. It strongly opposed Freemasonry, and was founded as a single-issue party, aspiring to become a major party. The group opposed Andrew Jackson, a Mason, and drew much of their support from evangelical Protestants.

Revolution of 1828

Jackson's election showed shift of political power to "the common man" (1828), when the government changed hands from John Quincy Adams to Jackson. The results of the election in which there was great voting turnout among the common man showed that the political center of gravity was shifting away from the conservative seaboard East toward the emerging states across the mountains. The revolution was peaceful, achieved by ballots.

12th Amendment

Brought about by the Jefferson/Burr tie, stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. Before that time, all of the candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.

King Mob

Nickname for all the new participants in government that came with Jackson's presidency. This nickname was negative and proposed that Jackson believed in too much democracy, perhaps leading to anarchy.

corrupt bargain

In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State.

Tariff of Abominations (Tariff of 1828)

Tariff passed by Congress in 1828 that favored manufacturing in the North and was hated by and discriminatory to the South. The bill favored western agricultural interests by raising tariffs or import taxes on imported hemp, wool, fur, flax, and liquor, thus favoring Northern manufacturers. In the South, these tariffs raised the cost of manufactured goods, thus angering them and causing more sectionalist feelings.

South Carolina Exposition

Vice-President Calhoun anonymously published this essay, which proposed that each state in the union counter the tyranny of the majority by asserting the right to nullify an unconstitutional act of Congress. It was written in reaction to the Tariff of 1828, which he said placed the Union in danger and stripped the South of its rights. South Carolina had threatened to secede if the tariff was not revoked; Calhoun suggested state nullification as a more peaceful solution.

Tariff of 1832

This tariff was a protectionist tariff in the United States. It was passed as a reduced tariff to remedy the conflict created by the tariff of 1828, but it was still deemed unsatisfactory by southerners and other groups hurt by high tariff rates. Southern opposition to this tariff and its predecessor, the Tariff of Abominations, caused the Nullification Crisis involving South Carolina. Jackson pushed through the Force Act, which enabled him to make South Carolina comply through force. However, the tariff was later lowered down to 35 percent, a reduction of 10 percent, to pacify these objections.

Trail of Tears

Refers to the forced relocation in 1838 of the Cherokee Native American tribe to the Western United States, which resulted in the deaths of an estimated 4,000 Cherokees. Resulted from the enforcement of the Treaty of New Echota, an agreement signed under the provisions of the Indian Removal Act.

Specie Circular

Issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. Jackson hoped that the Specie Circular would reverse the damaging effects of the Deposit Act of 1836. It required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.

"Slaveocracy"

A political, economical, and social system based on slavery. Although large planters represented only 0.5% of the white population, they virtually controlled the economic, social, legal, and political institutions of the South and even of the nation. ). Southern planters exercised powers in excess of their numbers. The South was an oligarchy—governed by an elite. They controlled the state legislatures, governorships, and legal system.

Tariff of 1833

A compromise bill passed as a measure to resolve the nullification crisis. It was proposed by Henry Clay of Kentucky. It would lower the Tariff of 1832 by 10 percent over a period of 8 years. By 1842 the rates would be back to those of the 1816 tariff. It was passed alongside the Force Bill.

Panic of 1837

When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild overspeculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.

Force Bill

1833 - The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never resorted to because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act.

Seminole Indians

The only native americans who lived in florida and successfully stayed on their land during the indian removal act of 1830. They lived in Florida. They waged a seven years war against the Americans to try and remain in the east instead of being forcibly removed to the west. They were tricked into a truce in which their chief Osceola was captured. Most were moved to Oklahoma while others remained hidden in the everglades.

Divorce Bill

A bill passed by Van Buren in 1837, that divorced the government from banking altogether, and established an independent treasury, so the government could lock its money in vaults in several of the larger cities. It was not a popular idea and led to the Treasury bill passed by Congress in 1840.

Bank of the U.S.

National bank chartered by Congress in 1791 to provide security for the U.S. economy. The central bank of the nation designed to facilitate the issuance of a stable national currency and to provide a convenient means of exchange for the people. The bank was responsible for providing the nation economic stability. Part of Hamilton's Plan, it would save the government's surplus money until it was needed.

Lone Star

Texas declared independence in 1836 and Houston forced signed treaty with Santa Anna in 1836, becoming the ______ ______ state.

independent treasury

President Van Buren's plan to keep government funds in its own vualts and do business entirely in hard money (specie) rather than keep them in depostits within shaky banks.

Democratic Party

One of the two major U.S political party. Founded in 1828 by Andrew Jackson to support a decentralized government and state's rights

"Pet" banks

A term used by Jackson's opponents to describe the state banks that the federal government used for new revenue deposits in an attempt to destroy the Second Bank of the United States; the practice continued after the charter for the Second Bank expired in 1836. Jackson had the Federal funds distributed in smaller state banks so that they were not all in one place.

Whig Party

An American political party formed in the 1830s to oppose President Andrew Jackson and the Democrats. Stood for protective tariffs, national banking, and federal aid for internal improvements.

Indian Removal Act of 1830

Passed by Congress under the Jackson administration, this act removed all Indians east of the Mississippi to an "Indian Territory" in Oklahoma at which they would be "permanently" housed. The Indians appealed to the supreme court and the supreme court said that the Removal Act was unconstitutional. Andrew Jackson overrode that with his military power: "John Marshall has made his decision; now let him enforce it," he commented. The supreme court obviously has no military power. Not powerful enough to overwhelm an assertion of the president.

Nullifiers

A short-lived political party in South Carolina by John C. Calhoun; supported the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions that states could nullify laws within their borders.

Unionists

South Carolinians who disagreed with the decision to secede from the Union.

Fewer hours, higher salary, better working conditions.

The three main goals of the Workers' Unions.

Madison's

The War of 1812 was ___________'s War.

West

Those in the _________, surprisingly, were the warhawks. In spite of violation of maritime rights, New Englanders were opposed to going to war. If war started, they would no longer be able to send shipments overseas, thereby losing important business.

Problems with forts, with naval harassment, and with the British fomenting Indian uprisings.

What were the main Western Frontier Issues?

Canada, Violation of our maritime rights, and impressment of sailors (kidnapping on the high seas).

What were the main problems the United States had with Britain?

Orders in Council

British laws which led to the War of 1812. They permitted the impressment of sailors and forbade neutral ships from visiting ports from which Britain was excluded unless they first went to Britain and traded for British goods and were searched for contraband. Made the U.S. angry.

Tennessee

Andrew Jackson was from ______________.

Macon's Bill #2

The worst foreign policy statement from the U.S. Was in response to the trade-restricting Orders in Council. Said that we are a free sovereign neutral nation. Whoever responds with "okay" first to cancel trade agreement, they will enjoy exclusive trade with the U.S. Made america an ally again against Britain, and made them break off from Britain. War broke out.

retaliatory

A ____________ tariff would be desired by a British cotton manufacturer. It would be resented by the South.

domestic industry; agriculture

Tariffs alway help ___________ ___________. Tariffs always hurt ___________: farmers and planters.

Jeffersonian Democratic Republicans; Clay

The _____________ ____________ ____________s wanted limited government and opposed government control of roads and canals. Thought that would give the government too much control over commerce. They worried that _______ wanted the American System because it would benefit fellow Kentuckians.

Tariff of 1816

The first protective, rather than revenue, tariff. It was an instance of the government protecting business. Put a 20 to 25% tariff on dutiable imports in a reaction to British competitors dumping their goods on America at cheap prices.

George Canning

The British foreign secretary who approached the American minister in London and proposed that the U.S. and Britain combine in a joint declaration renouncing any interest in acquiring Latin American territory, and warning the European despots to keep their hands off of Latin American politics. John Quincy Adams sensed a bad fish. A canned fish. A tenacious nationalist, he knew that a self-denouncing alliance with Britain would morally tie the hands of the U.S. and eventually pull them into a disaster.

self defense

The Monroe doctrine was solely for ______ __________, not for the good of Latin America.

Samuel Slater

The "Father of the Factory System." Escaped England secretly after learning the ins and outs of textile machinery, and brought that knowledge and those diagrams to America, where he was aided by Moses Brown in building the first cotton thread spinner in the U.S.

Eli Whitney

The man who invented the cotton gin, and interchangeable parts for a musket. (Essentially introduced the assembly line.) One would think that this would lessen slave labor. However, faster production required more raw cotton, and transitively more slaves down south to harvest that cotton. New England was the choice of production location because of its poor soil, its access to sea, dense labor, and rushing rivers for water power.

Elias Howe and Isaac Singer

The two inventors of the sewing machine, the foundation of the clothing industry.

limited liability

The principle of _________ ____________ in a corporation (cannot lose more than invested) stimulated the economy.

free incorporation

Laws of _________ ____________ came about, saying that there was no need to apply for a charter from a corporation to start a business. This strongly encouraged business.

Samuel Morse

Whose telegraph was responsible for connecting the business world?

Commonwealth v. Hunt

The case through which the Massachusetts supreme court legalized unions and peaceful and honorable protest. Union power was small for a long time, though, because the employer could always call in "scabs": immigrants eager for work.

the trans-Allegheny region: Ohio-Indiana-Illinois.

What area was known as "the Nation's Breadbasket"? They planted corn and raised hogs.

John Deer

Inventor of the steel plow that cut through hard soil and could be pulled by horses.

Cyrus McCormick

Inventor of the mechanical mower-reaper to harvest grain. This lead to a large-scale production and growth of cash crops (crops produced for economic benefit rather than the use of the producer.)

Lancaster Turnpike

A hard road from Philadelphia to Lancaster, PA which brought economic expansion westward.

The Cumberland Road

Also known as the National Road, a road constructed from Maryland to Illinois, funded by state and federal money.

Robert Fulton

Inventor of the first steamboat, which did away with the prior concern for weather and water current, thereby increasing U.S. trade and contributing to the development of the Southern and Western economies.

cotton

In the South, __________ accounted for 50% of exports.

Donald McKay

Who built those fast, sleek, and long clipper ships that dominated the sea for a breif time during the golden age of the American merchant marine. That golden age was soon crushed by British iron steamers---"tea kettles"--- that could haul heavier loads with slower progress but better reliability.

The Pony Express

A form of speedy communication from Missouri to California, traveling 2,000 miles in 10 days. It only lasted two years and was replaced by the telegraph wire.

Erie Canal

Thanks to the _______ __________, New York replaced New Orleans as the queen port of the country.

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