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Absolutism

Form of government where the monarch has total control. ex. Peter the Great in Russia or Louis XIV in France.

Anarchism

idea that NO government is better than any idea of government yet conceived.

anti-Semitism

belief that Jewish people are inferior and worthy of discrimination.

capitalism

economic system based on free market, open competition, profit motive and private ownership of the means of production. encourages private investment and businesses. It is the development of Adam Smith's laissez-faire ideas outlined in his definition of capitalism, 'An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations'.

colonialism

idea like imperialism where the mother country controls colonies for their economic growth, political power, and military bases.

communism

Economic system that puts ALL power in the hands of the government so they can manage it "for the good of the people". It originates from Marx's ideas, but it was changed by Russia, with Lenin and his successors who made "communism" that was very similar to Marxism.

conservatism

The idea that all change is BAD, and it should be slowed or fought so it doesn't happen.

deism

The idea that there is an all-powerful entity who created the universe, but just stepped back to watch it work. the clockmaker.

enlightened despotism

Absolute rule justified by the monarch's paternalistic outlook for the best interests of the citizens of his or her country. ex: Catherine the Great, Frederick the Great, and Joseph II of Austria.

existentialism

20th cent. philosophy where each individual person is in charge of giving meaning to their own lives.

fascism

A nationalist system where the state and big business partners eliminate worker rights and any resistance to governmental or corporate power. aka nationalism on steroids. Ex: Mussolini in Italy.

humanism

Ideal of human possibilities that came from the revival of Greco- Roman literature or art, very influential on the Renaissance.

imperialism

the doctrine that says a powerful country can control a weaker country militarily, economically, politically and spiritually. Ex: England in India or Belgium in Congo.

individualism

Stressing the importance of being true to one's self and that neither the state nor other individuals can subvert that individual's desire.

liberalism

Originating in the 19th Century, based on the idea that political change can make a society better than before. It supported democracy, laissez-faire and the removal of the Corn Laws. Led to utilitarianism and the reform movement.

Marxism

Devised by Marx and Engeks. The state owns the means of production and citizens contribute what they can to society, while society gives each citizen what they need.

mercantilism

based on the belief that a national economy has to be strong and self-sufficient. The country must be on the "favorable" balance of trade, where a country exports MORE than it imports. opposed by capitalists.

nationalism

the idea that everyone with the same language, traditions, ideas, ideals, culture, heritage, etc. should have their own nation, and love that nation.hu7

nihilism

idea that nothing exists but science. Supported by Russian intellectual elites like Turgenev.

relativism

Truth is not absolute, but subjective. The basis for judgment depends on the events, people or circumstances surrounding a situation.

romanticism

artistic movement in the mid to late 1800s. Depicted the beauty of nature and opposed the scientific revolution. "Sturm und Drang"= Storm and Stress

Social Darwinism

Darwin's ideas applied to social life. It aided nationalists and the imperialism of the time.

socialism

Idea that the government should manage the economy or aspects of the economy for the good of the people. Thought workers were unfairly treated. rejected laissez-faire and questioned the validity of the concept of private property.

totalitarianism

Idea that the government should control ALL aspects of the lives of the citizens. Ex: Stalin and Hitler.

utilitarianism

Jeremy Bentham's ideas; "the greatest good for the greatest number". Led to running water in England (and eventually the world)

Zionism

Idea that the Jewish people should have their own national homeland in Israel.

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