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Problems from all five chapters mixed together

the theory of epigenesis states that

adult structures in the organism develop de novo from substances present in the egg

the functional unit of heredity is

gene

the haploid number of a species is

2n

the phenotype of an organism is

the observed features of an organism

what are the basic subunits of DNA and RNA

nucleotides

which term describes the complete haploid content of DNA contained within an organism

genome

the study of the set of proteins present in a cell is referred to as

proteomics

desirable qualities in model organisms include

ease of growth, common genetic mechanisms with other organisms, production of many offspring, and short life span

why was Iceland chose for the deCODE project

icelandic individuals have a remarkable level of genetic uniformity

which of the following cell structures is directly involved in protein synthesis

rough ER and ribosomes

what chromosome has the centromere located very close to, but not on, the chromosome

aceocentric chromosome

G1/S and G2/M phases

Checkpoints are points between phases of the cell cycle at which a cell determines whether all the requirements necessary for each phase of the cell cycle have been properly satisfied. For example, because a cell with damaged DNA can lead to cancer if it is allowed to divide, a cell with damaged DNA usually arrests the cell cycle until the damage can be repaired. At which phase(s) of the cell cycle would a cell normally check for the integrity of its DNA?

cells that are metabolically active, but not destined to proliferate are said to be in what phase

G0 phase

what is the arrangement of chromosomes during metaphase

sister chromatids align along the equatorial plane of the cell

when do sister chromatids separate during meiosis

anaphase II

what is the fundamental difference between the product of female gametes and male gametes in humans

the production of female gametes but not male gametes involves an unequal division of cytoplasm

a megaspore is the product of what in plants

meiosis

the folded-fiber model is a model of what struction

metaphase chromosome

how did mender's work support the chromosomal theory of inheritance

the observation that chromosomes segregate independently and randomly during meiosis fit very nicely with mender's postulates

what is the expression of the binomial theorem

(a + b)^2 = 1

chi-square analysis can help us to decide whether what

our observations of an event differ from our expectations

what info can be obtained from a human pedigree

how a gene is inherited

what were the factors crucial to the success of gregor mendel's experiments

he kept detailed quantitative records, he chose traits that were not greatly influenced by the environment, and he observed only one or very few traits in any given experiment
he did not always allow all pea plants to self-fertilze thereby avoiding contamination from other individuals

which two genotypes in an individual would be expressed as the same phenotype in a diploid organism

homozygous dominant and heterozygous

mendel's two unit factors in pairs are most accurately known to be

two alleles on paternal and maternal homologs

what is an example of independent assortment

traits that are not on the same chromosome are inherited independently of each other

which of the following statements is true regarding a trihybrid cross between two true-breeding homozygous individuals with contrasting phenotypes

the least frequent F2 phenotypic class is recessive for all three traits

a gain of function mutation

results in the absence of the gene product

what is the while type allele indicated by

+

what is the difference between incomplete dominance and codominance

in codominance, both phenotypes are expressed in heterozygotes. in incomplete dominance, the heterozygotes shows a phenotype that is intermediate between the two homozygotes

why can multiple alleles only be studied in populations

any individual diploid organism can have, at most, two different alleles at a single locus

which of the following statements is always true when mutations occur in genes whose products are essential to an organism's survival

a homozygote for a recessive lethal allele will not survive

which term describes the phenomenon that occurs when the expression of one gene pair masks the expression of another gene pair

epistasis

complementation analysis is used to determine

whether two mutations that produce the same phenotype reside in the same or different genes

a gene in which the heterozygous condition is displayed differently in males and females is referred to as

sex-influenced

some genes and mutation vary in their phenotype expressing depending on the sex of the par ten from whom the gene is inherited. this phenomenon is known as

imprinting

which of the following reflects the genotype of an individual in the phenotype

complete dominance

a linkage group

represents all of the genes located on the same chromosome

when morgan carried out crosses involving two x-linked genes in drosophilia, he sometimes observed new phenotypes that were not present in the parents. what did morgan propose from these observations?

the points of overlap between synapsed homologous chromosomes, called chiasmata, were points of genetic exchange

how can the order of three linked genes (A, B, C) on the same chromosome be determined?

look for DCO phenotypes involving the wild-type and mutant alleles of genes A, B, and C

When analyzing three genes that reside on the same chromosome, the expected frequency of double-crossover events can be determined by multiplying the frequency of single crossovers between each pair of genes. What would cause the number of observed double-crossover events to be less than the expected value?

positive interference

why do mapping experiments become less accurate when the distances between genes become large

multiple crossovers are more common

lod scores are used to predict which of the following

gene linkage

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