a process developed in the 1850s that led to faster, cheaper steel production
Edwin L. Drake
(1819-1880) He drilled the first commercial oil well in the United States, drawing oil prospectors to the West.
name given to oil prospectors who came to Pennsylvania in the mid and late 1800s
a railroad system that crossed the continental United States
risk taker who starts new ventures within the economic system of capitalism
economic system in which most businesses are privately owned
in French, meaning "allow to do;" a business system where companies are allowed to conduct business without interference by the government
a view of society based on Charles Darwin's scientific theory of natural selection
having complete control in the marketplace, without any outside competition
John D. Rockefeller
(1839-1937) American industrialist and philanthropist; he made a fortune in the oil business and used vertical and horizontal integration to establish a monopoly on the steel business.
the business practice of owning all of the businesses involved in each step of a manufacturing process
owning all the businesses in a certain field
(1835-1919) American industrialist and humanitarian; he focused his attention on steelmaking and made a fortune through his vertical integration method.
(1794-1877) American business leader who controlled the New York Central Railroad and up to 4,500 miles of railroad track; he later donated $1 million to a Tennessee university.
Sherman Antitrust Act
(1890) a law that made it illegal to create monopolies or trusts that restrained free trade
small workshop set up in a tenement rather than in centralized factories
Knights of Labor
secret society that became the first truly national labor union in the United States
a list or register of people who are being denied a particular freedom or privilege
(1850-1924) American labor leader; he helped found the American Federation of Labor to campaign for workers' rights.
Eugene V. Debs
(1855-1926) Leader of the American Railway Union and supporter of the Pullman strike; he was the Socialist Party candidate for president ﬁve times.
public transportation systems that carry large numbers of people
American Federation of Labor
Alexander Graham Bell
(1847-1922) American inventor and educator; his interest in electrical and mechanical devices to aid the hearing-impaired led to the development and patent of the telephone.
Thomas Alva Edison
(1847-1931) American inventor of over 1,000 patents; he invented the light bulb and established a power plant that supplied electricity to parts of New York City.
Orville and Wilbur Wright
(1871-1948) (1867-1912) American pioneers of aviation; they went from experiments with kites and gliders to piloting the ﬁrst successful gas-powered airplane ﬂight and later founded the American Wright Company to manufacture airplanes.