To gather info on the errors children make in real communicative situations we need to use what measures?
Criterion-referenced measures such as language sampling
Name 4 standardized language tests for the developing language stage that were discussed in the lecture
1. CELF Preschool 2
2. Zimmer Preschool Language Scale (PLS)
3. Test of Early Language Development (TELD-2)
4.Bankson Language Test-2
The CELF Preschool 2 is designed for children of what ages?
The CELF tests a variety of different ___________ types.
Which test looks at both auditory and expressive communication?
Zimmer Preschool Language Scale (PLS)
The PLS measures children ages....
3.0 to 3.11
Why do standardized language tests include sentence repetition?
Because children will not imitate language structures that are not part of their language repertoire.
The TELD is designed for children ages
The TELD and the Bankson Language Test 2 both test _________________ and _______________ language skills
What can criterion referenced assessments do for us?
They can give us more specific forms functions and language structures to target.
They can cover pragmatics and additional semantic areas.
Standardized tests usually don't cover what areas?
pragmatics and semantic areas beyond associating words with pictures.
Which type of testing requires more planning?
NON-standardized i.e. criterion-referenced assessment
For non-standardized testing the clinician must decide on the...
linguistic stimuli, developmentally appropriate responses- and materials and context for gathering the data.
How many sessions should we have when doing criterion-referenced assessments?
One assessment session is not usually enough. We should plan to see each client at least twice once for formal assessment and once to do some non-standardized evaluations that are indicated by the results of the formal procedures.
Assessment is an _______________ part of the intervention.
What is the best way to do criterion referenced assessment of productive syntax and morphology?
________________ can help us assess phonological skills and intelligibility in a naturalistic way.
Language samples are used for children with an MLU between _______.
3.0 and 5.0
How can you quickly determine if a child's MLU is between 3 and 5?
By tallying how many 3 word sentences they produce. If the majority of the sentence have at least 3 words they are in the correct range.
When analyzing a language sample it is important to make reliable judgments about when an utterance...
___________ is a much better yardstick of syntactic development than age
No matter how old children are when they produce adult question forms their MLU is always around ___________
3 - 3.5
MLU alone should never be used to determine whether a child has a delay in language development but it does provide useful info about...
the child's language level.
MLU can help in what 3 ways:
1. Provides info about the child's language level.
2. Helps guide the remaining portions of the analysis
3. Charts changes or progress in productive language
If the MLU < 3.0 we should focus on
semantic relations and skills from the prelinguistic/emerging language stage.
If the MLU is between 3.0 and 5.0 we should focus on
developing language skills.
In the language sample we will look at what 3 areas?
1. Specific semantic concepts. 2.Morphological/syntactic markers in simple sentences. 3.Complex sentence development .
When studying specific semantic concepts in the language sample what do we look for?
WH questions i.e. What, where,who, whose, why, how many ( figure 8-7)
Prepositions i.e. Beside, in, next to, on, over, under, below (figure 8-8)
What does studying morphological/syntactic markers in simple sentences allow us to do?
It allows us to determine the child's developmental sequence.
Some complex sentence development may occur before age...
What are the disadvantages of using MLU as a speech sample analysis procedure
It is too global by itself to highlight areas of syntactic deficit.It may not be our most trusted guide to grammatical level.It requires full transcription of a speech sample a time consuming process.
Developmental order of sounds- "Early 8"
m, b, j-'yell', n, w, d, p, h
Developmental order of sounds- "Middle 8"
t, ŋ, k, g, f, v, ʧ, ʤ
Devlopmental order of sounds- "Late 8"
ʃ, θ, s, z, ð, l, ʒ
_________________ tests are relatively quick and easy to administer and score.
If the child scores within the normal range on the articulation test AND intelligibility in conversation what do you do?
no further assessment is necessary.
If the child scores below normal on an articulation test or intelligibility is low we need to decide....
if the child is showing primarily an articulatory disorder or a phonological disorder.
For children who are using more distortions we might just target for...
What characterizes a distortion?
Sounds are changed slightly so that the intended sound may be recognized but sound "wrong," or may not sound like any sound in the language.
The best known example of a distortion is the lisp.
For children who use lots of substitutions and deletions we might target...
Children who use simplification processes (cluster reduction weak syllable deletion etc.) may also have
language simplification (shorten sentences, leave off endings of words, drop syllables)
What are some phonological simplification processes?
cluster reduction, weak syllable deletion- etc.
What are some language simplification processes?
shorten sentences, leave off word endings, drop syllables
What is one of the main things we look for in a speech sample?
% of Intelligible Words
When trying to determine intelligibility, what is a clinically useful approach to start with ?
Just talking with the child for 5 to 10 minutes to get a sense of general intelligibility
How large a speech sample do we need to determine intelligibility?
Describe the steps of determining intelligibility
Take a speech sample of 200 consecutive words. Figure out the # of unintelligible words.
Divide unitelligible words by the total number of words in the sample.
Then subtract the result (as a whole number) from 100 to get the percentage.
The typical child at 2 years old is approx _______ intelligible
The typical child at 3 years old is approx _______ intelligible
The typical child at 4 years old is approx _______ intelligible
What exactly does intelligibility mean?
Intelligibility means we are able to figure out what the child meant, NOT that they pronounced it perfectly.
What does low intelligibility alert us to?
that we might need to give other assessments.
___________ of children who failed an intelligibility screen turned out to have developmental difficulties beyond speech and language
If a preschooler has poor intelligibility what should you do?
there should be more intensive assessment of his abilities in a range of developmental areas.