a period when business activity slows, prices and wages drop, and unemployment rises
dictator of the Soviet Union, turned the Soviet Union into a totalitarian state
a nation in which a single party controls the government and every aspect of people's lives
Prime minister of Italy, turned Italy into the first-ever facist state
a political system based on militarism, extreme nationalism, and blind loyalty to the state and its leader
a German nationalist who led the Nazi party, believed they were a master race and others were inferior
a warlike act by one country against another without cause
a policy of giving in to aggression in order to avoid war
the British prime minister who expressed confidence in his army against the German forces
avoiding involvement in other countries' affairs
Why did dictators take power?
people began to believe that their democratic government was too weak to solve problems
Who did Stalin kill?
many peasants, 4 million Soviets (were killed)
Why did Italy's king appoint Mussolini prime minister?
he threatened to take over the elected government (of Italy)
Core of Nazi belief
Who did Hitler say lost world war I for Germany? Why did people believe him?
Jews were "traitors" They wanted someone to blame.
jews couldn't attend public schools, have certain proffesions, Jews were attacked and sent to slave labor camps
How was Japan like Hitler?
they believed that Japanese were better than other Asians and non-Asians
Why did Japan attack China without permission?
They wanted to expand and knew that the League of Nations would do nothing
How did Hitler defy the Treaty of Versailles?
he built up Germany's armed forces, sent troops to Western Germany, and occupied Austria
Neutrality Act? Goal?
forbade the president from selling arms, making loans, or any assistance to any nation at war. Goal- to keep the U.S. at peace
an agreement between Hitler and Stalin to not attack each other and divide Poland
What two countries declared war on Germany after the invasion of Poland?
Britain and France
Countries Germany conquered by 1940
France, Poland, Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium, and Austria
Why was Hitler unable to conquer Britain?
They never gave up
Who did Hitler betray and what was the result?
Hitler betrayed Stalin. The Soviet Union sided with Britain.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
commander of American army in North Africa
commander of American-Filipino force, left the Philipines to fight in Australia, but promised to return
conflict involving not just armies, but entire nations
Roosevelt was the first president to do what?
be reelected for a third term
How did Roosevelt get around the Neutrality Act?
he made Britain pay in cash
allowed president Roosevelt to lend or lease supplies to the Allies
How did U.S. prepare for war?
congress spent more money on the army and the navy, had a peacetime draft, created an African-American air corps
Roosevelt and Churchill's goals for the postwar world
What prompted Japan to attack Pearl Harbor?
Roosevelt stopped trade with Japan so they didn't have any oil
What did the attack on Pearl Harbor lead the U.S., Germany, and Italy to do?
the U.S. declared war on Japan, so Italy and Germany declared war on the U.S. because they were japan's allies
Germany, Italy, and Japan 5 others
Britain, France, Soviet Union, U.S., China, 45 others
Why were the American and Filipino forces unable to defend the Philipines?
Japan destroyed most of their planes so they couldn't fight
Baatan Death March
American and Filipino troops walked 65 miles to a prison camp, but many died of exaustion, hunger, of disease along the way
Why was the Battle of Midway important to the Allies?
they defeated th Japanese so the Japanese no longer ruled the Pacific
the act of setting limits on the amount of scarce goods people can buy
A. Phillip Randolph
threatened a mass protest unless war units weren't segragated
What did women do in World War II
nurses, noncombat roles, pilots, transported bombers, towed targets, taught men to fly
What civilian efforts helped pay for the war?
war bonds, rationing, victory gardens
Who was Rosie the Riveter?
a fictional character that was a symbol for women working in the war effort
Executive Order 9066
ordered Japanese Americans to be interned
What other groups faced restrictions in the U.S.?
German, African, and Italian Americans
What two factors contributed to African Americans getting jobs they were once denied?
The Fair Employment Practices Committee, growing need for workers
Why did Mexican workers move north during WWII?
to work on farms and railroads
Harry S. Truman
VP under Roosevelt, took over after his death
American forces would capture some Japanese held islands but go around others
suicide piolets who crashed planes into American ships
the deliberate attempt to wipe out an entire nation or group of people
wartime acts of cruelty and brutality that are judged beyond the accepted rules of war and human behavior
What was the goal of American and British troops in Italy?
They wanted to remove Italy from the war
What was D-Day? Goal?
when Americans, British, and Canada invaded France to liberate the prisoners
What was the significance of the Battle of the Bulge?
Germany was unprotected from the east and west sides
What did Hitler do when the Soviets invaded Berlin?
What was V-E Day?
Victory in Europe, German surrender
Why did American commanders island hop?
it was a faster route to Japan
Why were Navajo soldiers so important to victories in the Pacific?
they radioed messages in Navajo language so the Japanese couldn't understand
What promise did MacArthur keep in the Pacific?
He returned to the Philipines
What convinced Americans that a full-scale invasion of Japan was required?
When Japanese soldiers decided they would rather die than surrender
Where did the U.S. drop atomic bombs?
in Hiroshima and Nagasaki Japan
What was V-J day?
victory in Japan, end of WWII!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
What was Hitler's final solution to the Jewish problem?
to destroy all Jews in Europe
What people were targeted by the Nazis in WWII?
Jews, Poles, Slavs, Gypsies, communists, and people with physical and mental disabilities
What happened to prisoners of Nazi death camps?
killed in gas chambers, tortured or used for awful medical experiments
What did all Holocaust survivors have with them until they died?
a number tattooed on their arm
What happened for the first time in Nuremberg Germany after the war?
people were put to death for war crimes
What two events in Europe and North Africa started to move the war in the Allies favor?
British defeated Germany's best generals in Egypt and Morocco
What was the new form of warfare at the Battle of Coral Sea?
aircrafts took off of ship decks and attacked other ships before the ship could see them
How did the war end the Great Depression?
there was less unemployment because of new jobs created by the war, people who were previously denied jobs found them
Why was Mussolini's dismissal a big blow to Hitler?
he lost a big ally
What significant event happened in the U.S. After the invasion of Germany?
President Roosevelt died and Harry Truman became the new President