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Motivation

motivation

a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior

instinct

a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned

drive reduction theory

the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need

homeostasis

a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level

incentive

a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior

heirarchy of needs

Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher level safety needs and then psychological needs become active. (Physiological, Safety, Belongingness/Love, Esteem, Self-actualization)

glucose

the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.

set point

the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight.

basal metabolic rate

the body's resting rate of energy expenditure.

anorexia nervosa

an eating disorder in which a normal-weight person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15% or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve .

bulimia nervosa

eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by efforts to limit digestion through induced vomiting, use of laxatives, or excessive exercise

sexual response cycle

the four stages of sexual responding described by Matsters and Johnson-excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.

refractory period

a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm

sexual disorder

a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning.

estrogen

a sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity.

testosterone

the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty

sexual orientation

an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation)

flow

a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills

industrial organization psychology

the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces

personnel psychology

a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development.

organizational psychology

a subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change.

structured interviews

interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales.

achievement motivation

a desire for significant accomplishment: for mastery of things, people, or ideas: for attaining a high standard.

task leadership

goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals.

social leadership

group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support.

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