HIstory test #5

55 terms by McGirl 

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for anyone interested in History, mostly for people from my school, the co-op Jim Bridger School. Classmates, study well. Our Next test is coming closer by the minute. -McGirl

Ace

Some of the best pilots such as Barron Manfred Von Richthofen, or the Red Baron.

Al Capone

Was an Italian-American gangster who led a crime syndicate dedicated to smuggling and bootlegging of liquor and other illegal activities during the Prohibition Era of the 1920s and 1930s.

Alvin York

Was a United States soldier, famous as a World War I hero. He was awarded the Medal of Honor for leading an attack on a German machine gun nest, taking 32 machine guns, killing 28 German soldiers and capturing 132 others.

Amelia Earheart

Was a noted American aviation pioneer, and author. This woman was the first woman to attain the Distinguished Flying Cross, awarded for becoming the first aviatrix to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean. She set for many other records, wrote best-selling books about her flying experiences, and was an instrumental in the formation of The Ninety-Nines, an organization for female pilots. During an attempt to make a circumnavigational flight of the globe in 1937, she disappeared over the central Pacific Ocean near Howland Island.

American Expeditionary Force (AEF)

The United States Armed Forces sent to Europe during World War I.

Anti-Semitism

A fierce hatred of all Jews, which was common among Americans during the 1920s.

Archduke Ferdinand of Austria

This man was an Archduke of Austria-Este, Austro Hungarian and Royal Prince of Hungary and Bohemia, and from 1889 until his death, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne. His assassination in Sarajevo precipitated Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against Serbia. This caused countries allied with Serbia to declare war on each other, starting World War I.

Archie

A slang term for anti-aircraft fire used by the British Royal Flying Corps and RAF.

Armenians

Immigrants from Armenia. Most of them settled in New York, but they also settled in Michigan and Illinois.

Armistice

A state of peace agreed to between opponents so they can discuss peace terms.

Austria-Hungary

Part of Germany's Central powers.

Babe Ruth

Also popularly known as "Babe," "The Bambino," and "The Sultan of Swat," this man was an American Major League baseball player from 1914-1935. He is one of the greatest sports heroes of American Culture. He has been named the greatest baseball player in history in various surveys and rankings, and his home run hitting prowess and charismatic personality made him a larger-than-life figure in the "Roaring Twenties."

Baron Manfred von Richthofen

Was a German fighter pilot known as "The Red Baron." He was the most successful flying ace of World War I, being officially credited with 80 confirmed air combat victories. This man was a member of an aristocratic family with many famous relatives.

The Battle of Meuse-Argonne

This, also called the Battle of the Argonne Forest, was a part of the final Allied offensive of World War I that stretched along the entire western front. The whole offensive was planned by Marshall Ferdinand Foch to breach the Hindenburg line and ultimately force the opposing german forces to capitulate.

Battle of St.-Mihiel

A World War I battle fought between December 12-15, 1918, involving the AEF and 48,000 French troops under the command of U.S. general John J. Pershing against German positions. The UNited States Army Air Service (which later became the United States Air Force) played a significant role in this action.

Belleau Wood

A roaming countryside where the most famous battle of World War I was fought.

Bernard Baruch

Was an American financier, stock-market speculator, statesman, and political consultant. After his success in business, he devoted his time toward advising Democratic US President Woodrow Wilson and Franklin D Roosevelt on economic matters.

Bolsheviks

People who were perceived as a threat to mainstream American culture.

Bootleggers, Rumrunners, and Moonshiners

Different groups of people who drank illeagly during the Prohibition Era. They hid liqour in their boot, smuggled it, and made it by the light of the moon.

Cantigny

The tip of the salient below Ameins. This was the first full-scale battle for the AEF.

Central Powers

In World War I, the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary and other nations allied with them in opposing the Allies.

Charles Lindbergh

Was an American aviator, author, inventor and explorer.

Colonel Douglas Macarthur

Was an American general, United Nations general, and Field Marshal of the Philippine Army. He was a Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and later played a prominent role in the Pacific theater of World War II. He was a highly decorated US soldier of the war, recieving the Medal of Honor for his early service in the Philippines and on the Bataan Peninsula. He was designated to command the proposed invasion of Japan in November 1945.

Dardanelles Campaign

This took place at Gallipoli peninsula in Turkey from April 25, 1915, to January 9, 1916, during the First World War. A joint British Empire and French operation was mounted to capture the Ottoman capital of Constantinople, and a secure sea route to Russia. The attempt failed, with heavy casualties on both sides.

Doughboys

What the American soldiers called themselves, because white clay dust covered their skin when marching.

Field Marshal Ferdinand Foch

The French Field Marshal who served as supreme Allied commander during the First World War.

Flappers

The new type of women, who became more independent. They broke the traditional behavior patterns, and changed their views on courtship rituals, marriage, and child rearing.

Ford Motor Company

Company founded by Henry Ford in 1910 and used mass production and is one of the most famous auto companies in the world.

Freikorps or Free Corps

Several militias created by German military officers to fight against communists.

General Ludendorff

Commander of German armies on the Western Front. In the spring of 1918, he launched an all-out offensive on the Allies, gambling everything.

General William "Billy" Mitchell

Brigadier General and chief of air operations, First Army. The first high-ranking United States Army officer to learn how to fly, and the first to win the Croix de Guerre.

German Americans

Americans that descended from Germany.

Greenfield Village

In the Metro Detroit suburb of Dearborn, Michigan, USA, is the nation's "largest indoor-outdoor museum" complex. Designed and built by the automobile industrialist Henry Ford.

Henry Ford

Automobile manufacturer. This man was first to use the assembly line to manufacture cars, rolling a car off the line every ten seconds. He was founder of the Ford Motor Company, and made his cars affordable for even the commonest family. He also created the 8-hour workday, and had his workers work five days a week, unlike most manufacturers at the time. He paid his workers $5.00 a day, so that eventually every other company had to raise their wages as well, hence increasing American living standards.

John J. Pershing

Nicknamed "Black Jack," this man led the American Expeditionary Force during World War I.

Kaiser Wilhelm II

The kaiser, or emperor, of Germany during the First World War. After the Germans were defeated and the Allies claimed victory of World War I, he fled.

Lafayette Flying Corps

A french group of pilots that Americans joined before we entered the war.

League of Nations

One of President Wilsom's Fourteen Points, to keep another world war from breaking out. The senate refused the treaty, but other nations joined, it stayed intact until it was replaced by the United States in 1945.

Lost Battalion

The name given to nine units of the United States 77th Division, roughly 554 men, isolated by German forces during World War I after an American attack in the Argonne Forest in October 1918. Roughly 197 were killed in action and approximately 150 missing or taken prisoner before 194 remaining men were rescued. They were led by Major Charles White Whittlesey.

Lusitania

British passenger boat sunk by a German submarine that claimed 1,000 lives. One of the main reasons America decided to join the war.

Model T

Automobile built using the assembly line methods -- was sturdy, reliable, inexpensive and available only in black, it was also known as the "Tin Lizzy."

No-Man's-Land

The land between the opposing trench lines.

Prohibition

This made it illegal to drink, make, buy or sell alcohol unless it was for medicinal purposes.

Sarajevo

The site of the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand and his wife that led to World War I.

The Scopes Monkey Trial

This was an American legal case that tested the Butler Act, which made it unlawful, in any state-funded educational establishment in Tennessee, "to teach any theory that denies the story of Divine Creation of man as taught in the Bible, and to teach instead that man has descended from a lower order of animals." This is often interpreted as meaning that the law forbade the teaching of any aspect of the theory of evolution.

Shell Shock

Temporary shock that can happen to anyone, caused by bombardments.

Speakeasy

A store with a hidden room where alcohol was sold and drunk illegally.

Spirit of St. Louis

A custom aircraft that was first to fly from New York to Paris and won a cash prize for it.

St. Valentine's Day Massacre

The name given to the death of seven people as part of a Prohibition Era conflict between two powerful criminal gangs in Chicago, Illinois, in the summer of 1929: the South Side Italian gang led by Al Capone and the North Side Irish gang led by Bugs Moran. Former members of Egan's Rats gang were also suspected to have played a large role in this, assisting Capone.

Teddy Roosevelt

The 26th president of the United States; "Speak softly but carry a big stick." He was leader of the Rough Riders during the Spanish-American War, and he built the Panama Canal. He was also a naturalist and a noted author.

Total War

A conflict of unlimited scope in which a belligerent engages in a mobilization of all available resources at their disposal in order to entirely destroy or render beyond use of their rival's capacity to continue resistance.

The Treaty of Versailles

This was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. it was signed on June 28, 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.

Trench Warfare

A form of warfare in which both combatants have fortified postitions and fighting lines are static.

War Industries Board

This was a United States government agency established on July 28, 1917, during World War I, to coordinate the purchase of war supplies.

Woodrow Wilson

The 28th president of the United States. He created the League of Nations, though he failed to get America involved.

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