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all of the following are true of the nervous system, except that it doesn't

function independently of the endocrine system.

Cells can respond to ________ hormone(s) at the same time.

a few

Which of the following hormones has intracellular receptors?

cortisol

What is the mechanism of action of lipid-soluble hormones?

activation of mRNA, which increases protein synthesis in the cel

After a lipid-soluble hormone is bound to its intracellular receptor, what does the hormone complex do?

acts as a transcription factor and binds to DNA, activating a gene

Which hormone's receptor is always bound to DNA, even when the receptor is empty?

thyroid hormone

What keeps intracellular receptors from binding to DNA before a hormone binds to the receptor?

chaperone proteins (chaperonins)

What type of hormones bind to receptors located on the cell membrane?

water-soluble hormones, such as insulin and epinephrine

Which intracellular substance degrades cAMP, thus inactivating the response to a hormone?

phosphodiesterase

Growth factor hormones, such as insulin, bind to which type of receptor?

tyrosine kinase receptors

Which is the correct order of events for hormones activating Gs proteins?

activation of G protein, binding of GTP, activation of adenylate cyclase, conversion of ATP to cAMP

Which second messenger causes the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum?

IP3

Which of the following adrenergic receptors increase cAMP levels?

Beta receptors

Which of these hormones is not derived from an amino acid?

parathyroid hormone

Hormones known as "catecholamines" are

derivatives of the amino acid tyrosine

A kinase is an enzyme that performs

phosphorylation

Which of the following substances activates protein kinases and thus acts as a second messenger?

cyclic AMP

All of the following are true of steroid hormones, except that they

are produced by the suprarenal medulla

Each of the following hormones is an amino acid derivative, except

thyroid-stimulating hormone

Before the discovery of these glands, thyroid surgery often led to a rapid drop in blood calcium levels, which triggered muscle contractions and cardiac arrhythmias. What glands are these and which hormone is lacking?

parathyroid glands; parathyroid hormone

When adenyl cyclase is activated,

ATP is consumed and cAMP is formed

All target cells have

hormone receptors

If the adenyl cyclase activity of liver cells were missing, which of these hormones could no longer stimulate release of glucose?

glucagon

Destruction of the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus would have which result?

loss of ADH secretion

Changes in blood osmotic pressure would most affect the secretion of

ADH

The main action of antidiuretic hormone is:

increased water conservation by kidneys

Excess secretion of growth hormone during early development will cause

gigantism

Which of the following hormones may lead to acromegaly if hypersecreted after closure of the epiphyseal plates?

growth hormone

Liver cells respond to growth hormone by releasing hormones called

somatomedins

The pituitary hormone that controls the release of glucocorticoids from the suprarenal cortex is

ACTH

The pituitary hormone that stimulates milk production by the mammary glands is

prolactin

The pituitary hormone that promotes ovarian secretion of progesterone and testicular secretion of testosterone is

LH

The term used to describe excess production of urine is

polyuria

After brain surgery, a patient receiving postoperative care in an intensive care unit began to pass large volumes of very dilute urine. The ICU nurse administered a medicine that mimics one of the following hormones. Which one?

ADH

The hormone that may be slowly administered by intravenous drip to accelerate labor and delivery is

oxytocin

Which of these signs is often seen in patients suffering from hyperthyroid disease?

elevated heart rate, elevated oxygen utilization, elevated body temperature

Which chemical element is necessary to make thyroid hormone?

iodine

The control of calcitonin excretion is an example of direct ________ regulation.

endocrine

Inadequate iodine in the diet may lead to

cretinism, high blood levels of TSH, hypothyroidism, myxedema

Thyroxine and calcitonin are secreted by the

thyroid gland

The hormone that does the opposite of calcitonin is

parathyroid hormone

The zona reticularis of the suprarenal cortex produces

mineralocorticoids

A hormone that promotes gluconeogenesis in the liver is

cortisol

Cushing disease results from an excess of

glucocorticoids

The suprarenal medulla produces the hormones

epinephrine and norepinephrine.

Damage to cells of the zona fasciculata of the suprarenal cortex would result in

decreased ability to convert amino acids to glucose

Too little secretion of cortisol and aldosterone causes

Addison disease.

Hormones from the adrenal cortex that regulate electrolyte balance are:

mineralocorticoids

Which group of hormones cause an anti-inflammatory action?

glucocorticoids

Pinealocytes produce

melatonin

If a diabetic patient received too much insulin, the low blood sugar could be corrected by injecting

glucagon

Which of the following might occur in an overdose of insulin?

low blood glucose

The beta cells of the pancreatic islets produce

insulin

The exocrine portion of the pancreas produces

digestive enzymes.

Type II diabetes is characterized by:

a lack of response by target cells to insulin

The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar to enter its target cells is

insulin

A structure known as the corpus luteum secretes

progesterone

Cholecalciferol is synthesized within the

epidermis of the integumentary system.

Adipocytes produce a peptide hormone called ________ that acts on the hypothalamus.

leptin

During the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) there is

mobilization of energy reserves.

The hormone that dominates the alarm phase of the stress response is ________.

epinephrine

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