membranous tissue covering internal organs and other internal surfaces of the body
tissue that receives messages from the body's external and internal environment, analyzes the data, and directs the response
liquid found between the cells of the body that provides much of the liquid environment of the body
an organ having nerve endings (in the skin or viscera or eye or ear or nose or mouth) that respond to stimulation
this determines the next action in a feedback system by sending output to an effector, processes the signal and sends instructions
substances the body requires for normal growth and health but cannot manufacture in sufficient amounts: they must be obtained int he diet.
essential amino acids
Amino acids that are needed, but cannot be made by the body; they must be eatin in foods
essential fatty acids
fats needed by the body that must be consumed in the diet because the human body cannot manufacture them
Essential nutrients that do not yield energy, but that are required for growth and proper functioning of the body.
substances that the body cannot manufacture but that are needed for forming healthy bones and teeth and regulating many vital body processes
the organic process by which food is converted into substances that can be absorbed into the body
the process in digestion that splits macromolecules from food by the enzymatic addition of water
The joining of food vacuoles and lysosomes to allow chemical digestion to occur within the cytoplasm of a cell.
The process by which nutrient molecules pass through the wall of your digestive system into your blood
An extensive pouch that serves as the site of extracellular digestion and a passageway to disperse materials throughout most of an animal's body
complete digestive tract consisting of a tube extending between 2 openings: mouth and anus, food moves in 1 direction and can be organized into special regions
the process of wave-like muscle contractions of the alimentary tract that moves food along
a thin, clear, virtually colorless acidic fluid secreted by the stomach glands and active in promoting digestion.
opening from the stomach into the duodenum, Controls passage of food from stomach to small intestine
main source of energy for the body, Organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in the proportion of 1:2:1.
further hasten digestion by splitting small peptides, Enzyme in small intestine that split small peptides
Protein digesting enzyme that is activated by trypsin; released as procarboxypeptidase (inactive form)
An enzyme found within the small intestine that splits off one amino acid at a time, beginning at the opposite end of the polypeptide containing a free carboxyl group.
an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information
Tiny hair-like projections of the cytoplasmic membrane located only in the small intestine to facilitate absorption by increasing surface area.
any of the lymphatic vessels that convey chyle from the small intestine to the thoracic duct
hepatic portal vessel
A large circulatory channel that conveys nutrient-laden blood from the small intestine to the liver, which regulates the blood's nutrient content
large and complicated reddish-brown glandular organ located in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity
intestinal mucosa cells secrete this hormone that inhibit gastric gland activity during inhibitory component of intestinal phase called the enterogastric reflex
secreted by intestinal cells, acts in opposition to ghrelin as an appetite suppressor
the last section of the digestive system, where water is absorbed from food and the remaining material is eliminated from the body