What is Growth?
An increase in number and size of cells as they divide and synthesize new proteins; results in increase in size and weight of the whole or any of its parts.
What is Development?
A gradual change and expansion; advancement from lower to more advanced stages of complexity; the emerging and expanding of the individuals capacities through growth, maturation and learning.
What is Maturation?
An increase in competence and adaptability; aging; usually used to describe a qualitative change; a change in the complexity of a structure that makes it possible for that structure to begin functioning; to function at a higher level.
What is Differentiation?
Processes by which early cells and structures are systematically modified and altered to achieve specific and characteristic physical and chemical properties; sometimes used to describe the trend of mass to specific; development from simple to more complex activities and functions.
What is the Germinal Period?
Conception to 2 weeks.
What is the Embryonic Period?
2 - 8 weeks.
What is the Fetal Period?
8 weeks to 40 weeks (birth).
What is the Neonatal period?
Birth to 28 days.
What is the Infancy Period?
1 month to 12 months.
What is the Toddler period?
1 - 3 years.
What is the Preschool period?
3 - 6 years.
What is the Prepubertal period?
10 - 13 years.
What is the Adolescence period?
13 - 18 years.
What is the first pattern of development?
Head to tail, or cephalocaudal.
What is the second pattern of development?
Proximodistal, or near to far.
What is the third pattern of development?
Differentiation, describes development from simple operations to more complex activities and functions.
What is a sensitive period?
Limited times during the process of growth when the organism will interact with a particular environment in a specific manner. Makes organisms more susceptible to positive or negative influences.
What are the different types of sensitive periods?
Critical, sensitive, vulnerable, and optimal.
How fast do infants grow from birth to 6 months?
Bright weight doubles by the end of the first 4 - 7 months.
How fast do infants grow from 6 - 12 months?
Birth weight triples by the end of the first year.
How fast to Toddler grow?
Birth weight quadruples by age 2 1/2.
Why does Linear growth or height occur?
As a result of skeletal growth.
What is considered a stable measurement of general growth?
When does birth length increase by 50%?
6 - 12 month infant.
What does birth length double?
By age 4.
When does birth length triple?
By age 13.
What is the yearly gain for school-age children?
What age do females hit pubertal growth spurt peak?
13, 95% is achieved.
What age do males hit pubertal growth spurt peak?
15, 95% is achieved.
How is a child skeletal age determined?
Radiographic determination of osseous maturation, specifically hand and wrist.
How is a childs bone age determined?
By comparing the mineralization of ossification centers and advancing bony form to age related standards.
What can damage to the growth plate cause?
Infection or deformity.
What age are Lymphoid tissues at adult dimensions?
Age 6, but continue to grow.
What happens to Lymphoid tissues at age 10 - 12?
It is twice their adult size.
When is the BMR highest in children?
Who is the BMR higher in boys or girls?
Boys in all ages.
What is the Basal Energy Requirement formula?
108 kcal/kg body weight in infancy and decrease 40 - 45 kcal at maturity.
What is Temperament?
The manner of thinking, behaving, or reacting characteristics of an individual.
What is an Easy Child?
Even tempered, regular and predictable in habits, have positive approach to new stimuli. Open and adaptable to change, display a mild to moderate intense mood that is typically positive. 40% children.
What is a Difficult Child?
High active, irritable, and irregular in their habits. Negative withdrawal is typical, require structured environment. Adapt slowly to new routines, people or situations. Mood expressions are intense and primarily negative. Frequent crying, frustration and violent tantrums. 10% children.
What is a slow-to-warm up child?
React negatively and with mild intensity to new stimuli and unless pressured, adapt slowly with repeated contact. Respond only mild but passive resistance to novelty or changes in routine. Inactive and moody but show moderate irregularity in functions. 15 % children.
What age is Trust vs Mistrust?
Birth to 1 year.
What age is Autonomy vs shame and doubt?
1 - 3 years.
What age is initiative vs guilt?
3 - 6 years.
What age is industry vs inferiority?
6 - 12 years.
What age is identity vs role confusion?
12 - 18 years.
What is Object Permanence?
The realization that items that leave the visual field still exist.
What is social affective play?
Type of play that is one of the first types of play in which infants engage with other people, taking pleasure in the relationship.
What is Sense-Pleasure play?
Characterized by nosocial situations where the child is stimulated by objects in the environment.
What is Skill Play?
Type of play when the infant demonstrates the exercise persistently.
What is Unoccupied behavior?
Type of behavior that is not playful but focuses on anything momentarily. Daydreaming.
What is Dramatic play?
Predominant form of play in the preschool period, children pretend and fantasize.
What is Solitary play?
Describes children playing alone with toys different from those used by other children in the same area.
What is Parallel Play?
Describes children playing independently but being among other children.
What is associative play?
No group goal is present, each child acts according to his or her own wishes.
What is Cooperative Play?
Organized, children play in a group of other children with a common goal.
What is a major component of play at all ages?
Sensorimotor development activity.
What is the importance of active play?
Essential for muscle development and serves a useful purpose as a release for surplus energy.
What do children gain through sensorimotor play?
Children explore the nature of the physical world. Tactile, auditory, visual and kinesthetic stimulation.
What is intellectual development?
Through exploration and manipulation children learn colors, shapes, sizes, textures and the significance of objects. Numbers, abstract concepts and spatial relationships.
Whos responsibility is it to inspect toys?
What is a choke tube tester?
About the same diameter of a child's windpipe, is used to determine whether a toy is a choking hazard or not.
What is the single most important factor that effects development?
What are the other developmental factors?
Heredity, Neuroendocrine factors, interpersonal relationship, socioeconomic level, disease, environmental hazards, stress in childhood, influence of mass media,