1st law of thermodynamics
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only form may be changed
2nd law of thermodynamics
Entropy - complex systems tend to degrade into simpler forms (applies to energy too)
Physical characteristic that increases the fitness of an organism
Evolutionary diversification of 1 species into many, multiple species from single species that colonizes new habitat, often seen on islands
The accidental adding of a nucleotide into a sequence
Pairs of genes that affect a same phenotypic trait, located at same locus on a pair of homologous chromosomes
Formation of 2+ species from single ancestral species due to reproductive isolation (preceded by geographic location)
A simple organic compound containing both a carboxyl and an amino acid group
Linear, Species A evolves into species B
Similar Function but different developmental origins
An abnormality involving a chromosome number that is not an exact multiple of the haploid number (one chromosome set is incomplete)
Human activities that affect the climate
A type of cell death in which the cell uses specialized cellular machinery to kill itself
Microorganisms that are similar to bacteria in size and simplicity of structure but radically different in molecular organization
Mating of individuals having more traits in common than likely in random mating
Ex: Calico cats, eye color, human female sweat gland distribution
Any chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes
An organism that is able to form nutritional organic substances from simple inorganic substances such as carbon dioxide.
Background extinction rate
1 species/ million years
A small, densely staining structure in the cell nuclei of female mammals, consisting of a condensed, inactive X chromosome.
The system of nomenclature using two terms, the first one indicating the genus and the second the species.
The theory that evolutionary stages are repeated in the growth of a young animal.
The theory that changes in the earth's crust during geological history have resulted chiefly from sudden violent and unusual events.
The theory that cells form the fundamental structural and functional units of all living organisms (1838 by
Characteristics of life
Metabolism, Homeostasis, Growth, Reproduction, Responsiveness, Genetic Program, Development, and Complex Organization
The synthesis of organic compounds by energy derived from chemical reactions, especially in the absence of sunlight.
(Chromosomal Alterations) Translocations, Deletion, Duplication, and Inversion
DNA molecules plus 5 types of histone proteins (in Eukaryotes)
(=gene) all codons for entire amino acid sequence needed to form protein, polypeptide, or RNA sequence
Branching evolution, Species A evolves into species B and C
Tiny spherical droplet of assorted organic molecules (specifically lipids) which are held together by hydrophobic forces from a surrounding liquid.(part of Oparin- Haldore Hypothesis)
characteristics of both alleles expressed in heterozygous phenotype
triplet of nucleotides, code for 1 amino acid unit in protein or polypeptide
Group of different species populations in same geographical area at the same time, like an ecosystem without the abiotic factors
similar adaptations in 2+ species from 2+ ancestral species (i.e not recently related)
Physical exchange of portions of homologous chromosomes, very common
A division of microorganisms (class Cyanophyce, kingdom Eubacteria) that are related to the bacteria but are capable of photosynthesis.
(1809-1882) Popularly given credit for Natural Selection
Piece of Chromosome lost entirely (often lethal)
(be able to do one)
2n - double chromosome number
(Cells 1st) formation of protocells; coacervate droplets, liposomes, and proteinoid microspheres; growth, primitive 'metabolism' and replication; later aquisition of enzymes and genes
Any compound of carbon and another elenent or a radical.
Origin of life
In natural science, abiogenisis or biopeipoesis is the study of how life on earth could have arisen from inanimate matter.
female sex gamete
Sufficient oxygen content in a lehr to produce or support combustion, air volume contacting oxygen sufficient to promote drying.
In developmental biology, pedomorphosis or juvenication is a phenotypic and/or genotypic change in which the adults of a species retain traits previously seen only in juveniles
The theory that life on Earth originated from microorganisms or chemical precursors of life present in outer space and able to initiate life on reaching a suitable environment
Similar adaptations in multiple species derived from different ancestral stocks
Incomplete speciation, partial reproductive isolation
(Founder Effect) new population isolated by colonization (i.e. finches blown off course to the Galapagos
The process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water;
Small, gradual changes in a trait
Series of small, gradual changes in species, formation of new species from ancestral species over long time period - 10's -100's of millions of yrs. many transitional forms
the evolutionary development and diversification of a species or group of organisms, or of a particular feature of an organism
Single pair of alleles controls multiple phenotypic traits
SIngle gene mutations, enzyme systems in cells may execute ('self - repair '), sometimes 'mistakes' - wrong nucleotide
2+ pairs of alleles control phenotypic trait
The occurrence of a number of alternative forms within a section of a nucleic acid or protein molecule
Derived from more than one common evolutionary ancestor or ancestral group and therefore not suitable for placing in the same taxon
Group of potentially interbreeding organisms that occupy the same geographic area at the same time
Present mass extinction
Backgroud extinction rate = 1 species/ million years, but estimate is 27,000 extinct /year; entirely due to Anthropogenic activity
An organism deriving its nutritional requirements from complex organic substances
A microscopic single-celled organism that has neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles
Any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more chains of amino acids
Tiny Bubbles formed by large organic molecules under certain conditions. Microspheres are not cells, but they have some characteristics of living systems. They have selectively permeable membranes through which only certain bio-molecules may pass.
A normal gene that has the potential to become an oncogene.
Explains biological function in terms of immediate physiological or environmental factors
The hypothesis that evolutionary development is marked by isolated episodes of rapid speciation between long periods of little or no change.
adioactive elements such as uranium may have concentrated on beaches and become building blocks for life by energizing amino acids, sugars from acetronitrile in water.
An allele that produces its characteristic phenotype only when its paired allele is identical
Study of life at subcellular and molecular levels (vastly expanded knowledge of life)
Reproductive isolating mechansims
Adaptation that maintain reproductive isolation (biochemical, genetic, physiological, anatomical, behavior, timing, geographical disruption
Lack of gene flow between 2+ populations, necessary for speciation, often preceded by geographic isolation
Ability to react to stimuli/environment (irritability)
And RNA molecule capable of acting as an enzyme
Connected series of neighboring populations that can interbreed with relatively closely related populations, but for which there exist at least two "end" populations in the series that are too distantly related to interbreed.
(Eigen Hypothesis) RNA acted as enzymes (ribosome), allowed production of proteins and other enzymes
Biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism
Sex linked traits
Traits occurring on one type of sex chromosome
Chromosomes involved with determining the sex of an organism, typically one of two kinds.
Due to problem in mitosis after fertilization
Perferential male selection based on 1 or more secondary sexual characteristics (morphological or behavioral)
Periodicity of Mass extinctions = every 26 - 30 years
Species very similar in appearance, behavior, and other characteristics while they are reproductively isolated
The formation of new and distinct species in the course of evolution
Differential survival and multiplication of species through time due to variation in emergent, species level characteristics
group of potentially interbreeding populations not limited to given geographical area, different species concepts
Selection for one extreme of population
Selection against most common phenotype (both extremes)
The accumulation of differences between groups which can lead to the formation of new species, usually a result of diffusion of the same species adapting to different environments
Self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes
An Allele that produces the same phenotype whether it is paired allele is identical or different
Biological organization of life, ranging from the subatomic level to the entire biosphere
A thermodynamic quantity representing the unavailability of a system's thermal energy for conversion into mechanical work, often interpreted as the degree of disorder or randomness in the system
Phenomenon in which one pair of alleles controls expression of another pair
A bacterium of a large group typically having simple cells with rigid cell walls and often flagella for movement.
An organism consisting of a cell or cells which the genetic material is DNA in the form of chromosomes contained within a distinct nucleus.
change in gene frequencies in population over time
Coding portions of DNA multiple codons
Extra-terrestrial Origins Hypothesis
Panspermia hypothesis: life 'seeded' on Earth from elsewhere in universe
All scientific explanations 'provisional', subject to revision OR rejection given new data or additional insight
Ability to survive and reproduce (PASSING ON GENES)
The loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population.
Genetic mutation caused by insertion of deletions of a number of nucleotides that is not evenly divisible by three from a DNA sequence
A thermodynamic quantity equivalent to the capacity of a system to do work.
Exchange of genotypes between populations through emigration (out of) or immigration (into)
Random loss or fixation of genes in small isolated populations (i.e. islands, fragmented habitats, relict populations, endangered species)
Tendency for gene frequencies to remain constant over time in large populations and randomly reducing populations (some dominant traits found at low percentage)
Polyploidy in plants, Hox Gene duplication in vertebrate jaws and paired limbs
Horizonal Gene Transfer, Incorporation of DNA from another lineage
The branch of molecular biology concerned with the structure, function, evolution, and mapping of genomes.
1n - single chromosome number
Hardy Weinberg Model
(Population genetics - see notes)
An organism (especially a microorganism) that grows in saline conditions
Single gene for a given trait (i.e. sex-linked traits
Developmental change in the timing of events, leading to changes in size and shape.
An organism deriving its nutritional requirements from complex organic substances
2 different alleles for a given trait
Any of a group of basic proteins found in chromatin
Long evolutionary history molded adaptations of living organisms today
Maintenance of constant internal environment (body temperature,water, ions, etc.)
Develop from same embryonic tissues, but they may have different functions
2 of the same alleles for a given trait
Horizontal gene transfer
Incorporation of DNA from another lineage
(1726 - 1797) Gradualism - earth has long history of slow change due to:wind, water, ice, volcanism, uplifting (continental drift)
The inactivation of a gene in a plasmid or other cloning vector by insertion of incorrect DNA nucleotides
Breeding in closely related people or animals especially over many generations
Selection for most common phenotype
Geologic layers laid down in chronological order
When the wrong nucleotide causes a mutation or the forming of the wrong amino acid
The merging of two separate organisms to form a single new organism
2+ new species from single ancestral species in same geographical area, reproduction due to competition or speciation
Homologous chromosomes pair physically
Synthetic theory of evolution
Theory based on cell theory, contemporary genetics principles, and micro and macro-evolutionary principles
Study of emergent properties of living systems
Scientific predictions always open to testing, must provide mutually exclusive alternatives
Theory of Acquired Characteristics
Young animals inherit physical traits 'acquired' by parents, doesn't take genes into account
Goal oriented evolution, simpler organisms 'seek' to evolve into higher ones, humans - apex of evolutionary process
Jumping genes (not point mutations)
Occurs when predators in a food web suppress the abundance of their prey, thereby releasing the next lower trophic level from predation
Tumor suppressor genes
A suppressor gene that blocks unscheduled cell division
Explains traits in terms of evolutionary acting on them
The theory that changes in the earth's crust during geological history have resulted from the action of continuous and uniform processes.
Utterly Dismal Therorem
Food Supply increases arithmetically while human population increases geometrically so human population will eventually be linked by starvation
Population isolated by geologic process
(1823 - 1913) Developed same theory as Darwin for Natural Selection, deserves equal credit
Both alleles expressed in heterozygate producing new phenotype
Codominance - characteristics of both alleles expressed in heterozygous phenotype
Intervening, non-coding portions of DNA
The number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism or species
Transformational Evolution, Theory of Acquired Characteristics
Law of Conservation of Mass
Same as first law of thermodynamics, matter can't be created or destroyed, only form may be changed
Distinct departures in multiple species due to diverging common ancestors
Portions of chromosome with genes that normally cross-over 'linked' together
Any of a class of organic compounds that are fatty acids or their derivatives and are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents.
Site on chromosome occupied by gene
(1797 - 1875) Uniformitariansim: natural laws constant in time and space, science must explain past events based on natural processes that can be observed now, most geological changes occur slowly and gradually
One of the two copies of the X chromosome present in female mammals is inactivated.
Large scale evolutionary process (beyond species level)
Major adaptive trends
Common adaptation appearing in numerous related species
(1766 - 1834) Utterly Dismal Theorem
Sharp decrease in the diversity and abundance of macroscopic life.
Science deals with objective phenomenon, governed by known physical laws of the universe
Type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each with half the chromosome number of the parent cell.
Complex of chemical reactions within an organism ability to transform energy
clay micro-crystals (Cains - Smith), sites for primitive 'metabolism' - before 1st protocells
Any animals of the subkingdom Metazoa, all animals except protozoans and sponges.
A methane-producting bacterium
Changes in gene frequencies in populations over time, 10's to millions of years, not necessarily formation of new species!!!
Prebiotic Synthesis of Organic Compounds
Type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each the same as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth.
(be able to do one)
Descended from a common evolutionary ancestor or ancestral group especially one not shared with any other group
The condition of having a diploid chromosome complement in which one (usually the X) chromosome lacks its homologous partner
Mosaic (autosomal vs. sexual)
2+ cell lines in same animal (see notes for comparison)
3 or more genes control same trait (but only two are inherited)
Change in single gene or large part of chromosome due to mutagens, most lethal and recessive
Major process by which evolution occurs, non random reproduction of individuals evolves to survival of those best suited to environment
Small dark star passes close to sun every 26-30 million years
'Modern synthesis' of Darwinian evolution through natural selection with Mendelian genetics (take out Acquired characteristics and Pangenesis)
Abnormal proliferation of cells
Failure of chromosomes to separate normally during meiosis
Protein that has a mutation in it so it cannot be read.
A complex organic substance present in living cells especially DNA or RNA, whose molecules consist of many nucleotides linked in a long chain
A compound consisting of a base linked to a phosphate group forming the basic structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA.
A gene that in certain circumstances transforms a cell into a tumor cell.
Study of emergent properties ( brought broader view of life)
Ability to pass on traits/adaptations to offspring (coded on information molecules, DNA/RNA)