Earth's Physical Systems

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Chemistry

-studies types of matter and how they interact
-important to understand global climate change, air pollution, energy issues

What is matter?

all material in the universe that has mass and occupies space

Law of Conservation of Matter

matter can be transformed from one type to another but cannot be destroyed or created

Element

fundamental type of matter

atoms

smallest component that maintain an element's chemical properties

Nucleus

protons- positive charged
neutrons- no charge
electrons-negatively charged

isotopes

atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons

ions

atoms that gain or lose electrons to become electrically charged

molecules

combinations of two or more atoms

compounds

molecules composed of atoms of two or more different elements

covalent bonds

electrons are shared b/w two atoms to complete the outer shells of each

ionic compounds

an electron is transferred

hydrogen bond

oxygen from one water molecule attracts hydrogen atoms of another

organic compounds

carbona atoms joined by covalent bonds

inorganic compounds

lack the carbon-carbon bond

macromolecules

building blocks of life

polymers

long chains of repeating units of smaller organic molecules

proteins

long chains of amino acids
-produce tissues, store energy, transport material

nucleic acids

direct protein production

energy

the capacity to change the position, physical composition, or temperature of matter

first law of thermodynamics

energy can change forms but cannot be created or destroyed

second law of thermodynamics

energy changes from a more ordered to a less ordered state

autotrophs

organisms that produce their own food

photosynthesis

process of turning the sun's energy into concentrated chemical energy

Geology

study of earth's physical features, processes and history

geothermal heat

radioisotopes deep in the planet heat inner earth

Earth's core

solid and molten iron

Earth's mantle

less dense, elastic rock

crust

thin, brittle, low density layer of rock

lithosphere

uppermost mantle and crust

rock cycle

heating, melting, cooling, breaking, and reassembling of rocks and minerals

Igneous rock

lava- magma that reaches the surface
-forms when magma cools

sedimentary rock

sediments are compacted or cemented

metamorphic rock

great heat or pressure on a rock changes its form

plate tectonics

movement of lithospheric plates

earthquake

a release of energy along plate boundaries and faults

volcano

molten rock erupts through earth's surface

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