Lumbar Spine, Sternum & Ribs

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The Scottie dog is visualized on the:

AP projection in the oblique position

The intervertebral foramina of the lumbar spine and the midsagittal plane form an angle of:

90°

For the AP axial projection of the coccyx, the CR is directed:

10° caudad

When using a 14- x 17-in (35- x 43-cm) IR for an AP projection of the lumbar spine, the CR is directed to:

L4-L5

The left zygapophyseal joints are best demonstrated on the:

Left posterior oblique position

The most posterior portion of a lumbar vertebra is the:

Spinous process

When taking radiographs to evaluate fusion of the vertebrae, place the IR:

1 to 2 inches below the iliac crest

The zygapophyseal joints and midsagittal plane form an angle of:

30° for the lower vertebrae and 50° for the upper vertebrae

The front leg of the "Scottie dog" represents the:

Inferior articular process

Which topographic landmark corresponds to L2-L3?

Lower costal margin

For an AP axial projection of the sacrum, the CR is directed:

15° cephalad

The intervertebral joints in the lumbar spine are classified as:

Cartilaginous and amphiarthrodial

The number of fused segments forming the coccyx is:

3 to 5

The intervertebral foramen of a lumber vertebra are best demonstrated on the:

Lateral projection

When the spine is unsupported for a lateral projection for L5-S1, the CR should be directed:

5° to 8° caudad

For an AP projection of the sacroiliac joints in the oblique position, the patient is rotated:

25° to 30°

Which positioning line is used to determine CR angle for a lateral L5-S1 projection?

Interiliac

For an AP projection of the lumbar spine in the oblique position, the patient is rotated:

45°

Which topographic landmarks are used to direct the CR for an AP axial projection of the sacrum?

Anterior superior iliac spine, Symphysis pubis

For a lateral projection of the sacrum and coccyx, the CR is directed:

3 to 4 inches posterior to the ASIS

For a PA projection of the sternoclavicular joints, the CR is directed

3 inches (7 cm) inferior to the vertebra prominens

The posterior aspect of a rib is

3 to 5 inches superior to its anterior aspect

To demonstrate ribs above the diaphragm on a radiographic image

Use a low kV and Take the exposure in inspiration

A rib fracture may result in

Hemothorax, Pulmonary contusion, or Pneumothorax

For a radiograph of the sternoclavicular joints, the recommended kV range is

60 kV to 70 kV

For a PA projection for ribs above the diaphragm

Align the midsagittal plane perpendicular to the IR, Direct the CR to the level of T7, and Take the exposure on suspended inspiration

A radiographic image taken to demonstrate ribs below the diaphragm should include ribs numbered

8 through 12

Which rib is classified as floating

11th

The IR size and orientation for a radiograph of the sternum in the RAO position is

10 x 12 inches (24 x 30 cm) lengthwise

The inferior rib angle (lowest costal margin) is at the level of

L2-L3

For an AP of the ribs below the diaphragm, the recommended kV range is

70 kV to 80 kV

To demonstrate ribs below the diaphragm on a radiographic image

use a medium kV

For a radiograph of the sternum in the RAO position, place a

Right side marker in the upper right corner of the IR

To demonstrate the sternum on a radiographic image using the RAO position, use

Low kV, A long exposure time, and A 40-inch (100-cm) SID

Which body habitus type would require the greatest degree of patient rotation for an RAO position to demonstrate the sternum

Asthenic

To demonstrate the axillary portion of the ribs, the patient is rotated

45°

The only connection between the bony thorax and shoulder girdle is the

Sternoclavicular joint

For a lateral projection of the sternum

Place the patient in an erect position and Draw the patient's arms posteriorly

Which rib is considered a true rib

7th

For a radiograph of the sternum in the RAO position, the CR is directed halfway between the

Jugular notch and Xiphoid process

The costovertebral joint is formed by the

Head of the rib and Body of a thoracic vertebra

Palpable topographic sternal landmarks include the

Jugular notch, Sternal angle, and Xiphoid process

The body of the sternum articulates with costocartilage of ribs

3 through 7

For a radiograph of the sternoclavicular joints in the recumbent oblique position

Rotate the patient 15° and Direct the CR to the level of T2-T3

For a radiograph of the sternum in the RAO position, the recommended kV range is

60 kV to 70 kV

The xiphoid process is at the same level as

T9-T10

For a radiograph of the sternum in the RAO position, the typical degree of patient rotation is

15° to 20°

the lumbar spine is a ___________ curvature

compensatory

the lumbar spine has _____________ ____________ type of curvature

lordotic, concave

the portion of the lumbar spine between inferior and superior articular processes is the

laminae or pars interarticularis

the AP Axial lumbar spine projection is done to visualize an open AP L5-S1 joint true or false

true

on properly positioned oblique lumbar spine, the pedicles or eyes should appear in the ______ aspect of the vertebral body

center

the anterior ridge of S1 is called

sacral promontory

articulate with ilium of pelvis to form SI joints

auricular surface

advantages of a PA lumbar include

prone position places spine more parallel and opens spaces between disks, lowers ovarian dose

disadvantage of a PA lumbar include

increases magnification

Which oblique positions would demonstrate the left lumbar facet joints

LPO & RAO

What projections and position are used and why for a scoliosis series

PA projection to reduce dose,
Convex side of curvature placed toward IR on the lateral projection to reduce magnification

name of method that is required to assess scoliosis in which the patient is required to stand with one foot on a 3" block

Ferguson method

An RPO for the SI joints will demonstrate the _____ SI joint

left

Which pair/s of ribs attache to the sternum at the level of the sternal angle

2nd

Why is the RAO position for the sternum preferred to the LAO position

places sternum in heart shadow

Which olbique positions will best demonstrate the axillary portion of the left ribs

LPO & RAO

Which oblique best demonstrates the right sternoclavicular joint

RAO

Which two projections must be taken for an injury to the right anterior upper ribs

PA & LAO

A radiograph of an RAO sternum reveals that it is partially superimposed over the spine. What must be done to eliminate this problem during the repeat exposure

Increase patient rotation

A radiograph of a lateral projection of the sternum reveals that the patient's ribs are superimposed over the sternum. What is the error?

Rotation, not true lateral

why does breathing technique improve imaging of the sternum

lung & rib markings will become obscured allowing the sternum to remain sharp and defined

which images of the ribs are taken erect and which are taken recumbant and why

erect - for ribs 1-9 if there is pain and also diaphragm is at lowest position on full inspiration.
recumbant - for ribs 8-12 because diaphragm is at its highest position on expiration allowing structures to be visualized better thru abdominal structures.

Which AP/PA projection and OBL position should be taken for an injury to the right anterior upper ribs?

PA & LAO

Which AP/PA projection and OBL position should be taken for an injury to the left anterior upper ribs?

PA & RAO

Which AP/PA projection and OBL position should be taken for an injury to the right posterior upper ribs?

AP & RPO

Which AP/PA projection and OBL position should be taken for an injury to the left posterior upper ribs?

AP & LPO

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