The understanding that the sounds of a spoken language work together to make words as well as one's ability to manipulate the larger pieces of OL i.e. syllables, onsets & rimes, & phonemes.
- The ability to take words apart, put them back together again, and change them.
-Must have the understanding & the ability to perform the skill of working with words.
*This is NOT phonics!* This is b/c PA focuses only on sounds in spoken words - before a child knows which letters make those sounds, which is phonics
The understanding that spoken language is composed of units, larger to smaller such as:
-Onsets and Rimes
-Individual Phonemes (phonemic awareness)
Children learn sounds and letter correspondence via the senses through rhyming, clapping, singing, and movement.
The Alphabetic Principle
-Supported by Phonemic Awareness
-The discovery that units of sound in words & lang. as well as letters and letter combinations are represented by printed letters on the page.
-Knowing that an alphabet exists.
-Learning that the alphabet is systematic, an awareness that there is a systematic relationship between speech and print.
The symbols we use in the alphabet - written representations of the smallest units of sound
-These symbols seem arbitrary for children without phonemic awareness.
The Progression of Phonemic Awareness Skills
Develops from less difficult to more difficult tasks
1. Development of word concept
3. Hearing Sounds in Words (oddity and same-different judgement tasks)
4. Counting Syllables and Sounds
5. Isolating beginning, ending, and middle sounds in words (learned in that order)
6. Substituting and Deleting Sounds in Words and Syllables
7. Blending Syllables, Onsets and Rimes, Bodies and Codas, and Individual Sounds into Words
8. Segmenting Words into Syllables, Onsets and Rimes, and Sounds
9. Representing Sounds in Words with Symbols in Spelling and Writing.
The initial consonant sound in a single syllable or word. i.e. the onset of "Sun" is /s/. The onset of "slide" is /sl/.
-i.e. /t/ is the onset in "tack" and /sn/ is the onset in snow.
- All of the sounds in the syllable before the vowel
The vowel and any following consonants within a syllable.
i.e. the rime unit in the word "tag" would be /ag/.
i.e. /ack/ is the rime in "tack"
i.e. /ow/ is the rime in "snow".
-the vowel and everything following it.
The smallest unit of speech that distinguishes one word from another. i.e. the t in "tug" and the r in "rug" are two phonemes.
The understanding of the systematic relationship between specific letters and specific sounds.
Used to assess levels of basic phonemic awareness by being asked to recognize whether or not pairs of words rhyme.
-Use 20 word pairs, some that rime and some that do not. Avoid creating a predictable pattern.
- Read the word pairs to the student 1 set at a time and ask "do these words rhyme?". Discretely note the student's response.
- This can be extended by asking the student to generate their own example of a word that rhymes with a sample word being provided to them.
The Oddity Task: Why One Does Not Belong?
Used to measure how well a child can isolate words that are the "oddball in a group" by assembling 10 sets of 3 word cards each.
- 1 word in each set is a clear oddball, and the oddity can be in the beginning, ending, or middle vowel sound.
- The teacher reads the word cards to the student and asks "which one doesn't belong?"
-Record and analyze the responses.
Syllable & Sound Counting Task
Assesses a child's ability to hear individual sounds and word parts.
- Counting tasks require that students count the number of syllables or sounds in a word that is either spoken or shown in a picture.
- These tasks can focus on beginning, ending, and middle syllables and sounds of words.
- Teachers commonly ask students to either tap or clap the sounds or syllables they hear, which helps them to hear hear and accurately count the sounds
Same-Different Word Pair Task
This task measures children's development of syllable, onset and rime, and phoneme awareness by requiring them to say whether a pair of words or a pair of pictures share the same beginning, ending, or middle syllables or sounds.
Auditory Sound Blending Task
Assesses a child's ability to blend sounds together to form words. They are asked to recognize words by blending the sounds in words that teachers stretch out into segmented units via "rubber banding".
- i.e. m-a-n or sh-i-p
- The ability to guess what the word is from its blended form demonstrates a slightly higher level of phonemic awareness than recognizing rhyming sounds.
Segmenting Sound Assessments
Students are asked to listen to and isolate sounds in the initial, medial, and final positions in a word. A child's ability to isolate sounds in words in an excellent indication of whether they can profit from decoding instruction.
- Teachers provide words and ask the student to isolate the individual sounds that make up that word.
By providing a list of simple words and asking a student to "write the sounds they hear", a teacher can quickly ID which sounds are known.
- The results of these tasks clearly show how well the child understands beginning, middle (vowels and vowel patterns), and ending sounds.
Letter Identification Tasks
This quick, simple assessment determines how well a student recognizes the letter symbols themselves (finding out which sounds a child can connect to the letters comes later).
- A child names the letters presented (both upper and lower case) on a stimulus page.
-When creating this page, keep the display of the letters linear as opposed to randomly scattered around the page, and also keep a good ratio of text to white space to make the assessment "easy on the eyes" and simple to follow visually.
- DO NOT place the letters in alphabetic order!
Letter Production Task
Determines whether students know and can write letters of the alphabet. Unlike simple letter ID, this task requires that students be able to produce letters from memory. This is an indication of how well they have sorted out sound and symbol processes but is not logically necessary for successful reading.
Picture Sound Counting (Elkonin Boxes)
Counting the number of syllables and sounds in words helps children to attend more carefully to these parts of words.
-This is a hands on activity using simple picture stimulus cads with a row of boxes underneath.
-The child looks at the picture, says the word, and counts the individual sounds they hear. Then they use bingo chips, M&Ms, pennies, etc. to fill in one box for each specific sound heard.
-This is easily differentiated by using words with fewer or more phonemes. i.e. c-a-t- for developing early skills versus a word with 4 or more sounds such as s-h-i-p pt g-r-a-p-e.
-Make sure the pictures are highly familiar to the child and are not confusing.
- Provide a consistent number of boxes (usually 5) under the pictures used to prevent a child from "guessing" if they are given more or fewer sound boxes with each picture.
- **Consonant digraphs such as /ch/ or /sh/ would be represented by 1 chip since they place them for sounds they hear. This is true for silent vowels as well.
Word Rubber Banding
This technique teaches students to segment/isolate or "stretch" a word out to hear the individual sounds.
- Teacher asks a child to say a word or name in text slowly, in a drawn-out manner, so that the sound parts are more noticeable.
- i.e. the word dog would be rubber banded and said: "D-d-d-d-o-o-o-o-g-g-g-g-"
-Teachers often show students how to "press out" the sounds they hear by touching a different finger to their thumb for each sound they hear.