Describe the results of China's early contacts with the West.
Angered by the controlling ways of European countries (spheres of influence) the Chinese developed groups based on their course of action to be released by control. One of these groups developed into the Nationalist People's party wished to keep Chinese traditions, but were influenced by Western ideas. Once the Nationalist president was instated, Yat-sen, the government defeated warlords. Marxism Communism created a divide in the government but the new president, Chiang, made its best efforts to defeat the developing threat led by Mao Zedong.
Identify internal conflicts that led to a Communist takeover.
In the 1930s, Japan took advantage of the fighting in China and invaded the northern province of Manchuria. This invasion forced the Nationalists and Communists to work together. After the war ended in 1945, fighting between the two groups reemerged. The number of Communist supporters grew with the pleasing social reforms they made in areas they controlled and defeated the Nationalists in 1949.
Describe the purposes and results of the Great Leap Forward.
Zedong's goal was to greatly increase agricultural productivity and improve life after war. In this plan, some 750,000 collective farms were combined into about 23,500 People's Communes, holding as many as 250,00 people that contained farms and industries. This system resulted in "a serious leap backward" and the Chinese government abandoned the plan after only 2 years.
Explain how a series of modernizations attempted to change China.
Deng Xiaoping took control after Zedong's death and implemented a more practical approach to addressing China's problems. 1) contract responsibility system- used to improve agriculture after the fail of the Great Leap Forward; government rented land to farm families, each family decided what to produce and contracted with the government to provide a certain amount of farm products at a set price. After the contract was fulfilled, the family sold the remaining goods at markets at the prices they chose. As for industry, China turned to light industry instead of heavy industry. The Special Economic Zones have made the interior of China desolate for adequate work and the cities are overcrowded.
Describe how china's Northeast region has served as the center of population, industry, and government.
The Northeast contains the country's capital, Beijing, and had the greatest concentration of China's population. The Northeast was the site of one of the world's earliest cultural hearths, centered on the Huang He. Beijing also serves as the educational and industrial hot spot of the country.
Explain why the Southeast region of China is ideal for agriculture and transportation.
The Southeast is ideal for agriculture because: warm wet climate and fertile soil from the region's river valleys. In some areas farmers practice double cropping, some farmers carve terraces into the slopes of the hills to increase arable land. The Yangzi River serves as China's east-west highway. Shanghai, China's major port, is located at the mouth of the Yangzi.
Explain how the Silk Road promoted development of China's barren Northwest region.
The Silk Road crossed the bare landscape of Northwest China. Along the road, way stations developed around oases fed by mountain streams. Over time, the way these way stations developed into large towns.
Identify how communist rule has affected Southwestern China.
In the Southwest is the cold, dry Plateau of Tibet. China took over Tibet with a Communist regime in 1950, forcing the Dalai Lama, theocrat leader, to flea. China designated Tibet as an autonomous region. In the 60s and 70s, the Chinese destroyed Buddhist monasteries and forced Tibetans to join agricultural communes. In recent years, Tibetans have been allowed to practice their religion more openly.
Describe how China's Communist government has changed its attitudes about population growth.
Zedong first promoted the mass increase in population, but overcrowding and starvation began to dominate the nation. He asked couples to have no more than 2 children. Not until Xiaoping came to power did population growth decrease significantly when the government strictly enforced the one couple, one-child policy. In recent years China has relaxed the policy due to worldwide criticism.
Identify the factors that create a common Chinese culture and encourage unity throughout China.
92% of China's population belongs to the Han ethnic group. The Han people speak Chinese, and write in a non-phonetic alphabet. Most people in China follow Buddhism, Daoism, and Confucianism. China is officially an atheist state.
Describe how Taiwan has become an industrial power in Asia.
The Nationalist government instituted a sweeping agricultural reform in 1949, encouraging the use of fertilizers and double cropping. Taiwan's farm production has nearly doubled. The Nationalists also set in motion an industrial modernization program. With the help of foreign investment, Taiwan developed textile, food-processing, plastics, and chemical industries. Nearly all raw materials had to be imported. In recent years, Taiwan has tried to focus on high-technology goods.
Explain how Hong Kong's relationship with China makes Hong Kong's future uncertain.
China was forced to lease Hong Kong to Britain for 99 years in 1898 as it was being used for Britain's naval base and as a way station for ships sailing to Britain's pacific empire. In 1992, the governor of Hong Kong introduced democratic reforms, outraging China. When Chee-hwa replaced that governor in Hong, he replaced the democratically elected members with pro-China lawmakers. The local government permits small protests and free press but relations remain tense.
Discuss how the standard of living in Mongolia has improved in recent years.
Mongolia has developed their coal and copper mining industry, continuing their traditional style of nomadic herding. But with industrialization, Mongolia has urbanized. Mongols can access the internet with mobile phones.
List the chief physical characteristics of Japan.
It is separated from the mainland by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan. The Inland Sea is a major highway between the islands of Japan. The Ishikari River cuts across the western half of Hokkaido and provides the best area of fertile soil in all of Japan. Japan is part of the Ring of Fire- a region of spectacular tectonic activity along the rim of the Pacific Ocean. The country is extremely mountainous.
Explain why Japan has a variety of climates.
Japan's climates vary according to latitude. The seasons are affected by monsoons which bring heavy rains and hot temperatures. Also, ocean currents affect Japan's climate. The Japan Current, flowing northward from tropical waters, warms the air. The Oyashio Current, which is very cold, flows southeastward along the east coast of Hokkaido and northeaster Honshu and cools that area.
Describe what factors encourage unity among the Japanese people.
Shared ancestry- more than 99% of Japanese citizens have ancestors who lived in Japan and ethnic and cultural similarity led to a strong sense of national unity and identity. They also share similar religious beliefs and traditions. The majority of the Japanese practices Buddhist traditions and celebrates Shinto holidays. Lastly, there is a large middle class so most citizens have an equal economic standpoint.
Discuss why Japan isolated itself from the West and happened when new relations were established in the 1800s.
They cut off trade with the west in 1639 because they feared being conquered by European nations. Trade re-opened in 1853 because the U.S. government sent Commodore Matthew C. Perry and a fleet of steam-powered warships to negotiate a trade agreement. They were forced to sign treaties with other Western nations too.
Explain why Japan attempted to gain control of neighboring countries.
Japan wanted to gain control of other countries because they lacked vital natural resources and raw materials. They also wanted access to new markets and additional land for its expanding population.
Summarize Japan's role in World War II and how it affected Japan's status at war's end.
Japan sided with the Nazi's. Japan seized French and Dutch colonies in Southeast Asia when France and the Netherlands fell under Nazi occupation. Japan attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7th, 1941. In 1945, the U.S. dropped atomic bombs on Japanese cities and Japan surrendered. The U.S. occupied Japan from 1945 to 1952. It removed military leaders and the emperor from power, disbanded Japan's armed forces and established a democratic constitution.
Describe how Japan was able to prosper economically after World War II.
Japan began obtaining raw materials through trade. They put great emphasis on education. Japanese workers are rarely fired or laid off and few ever quit their jobs. This results in company loyalty, hard work and dedication. Japan is also at the center of an active trade network. MITI also decides what economic activity will benefit Japan as a whole.
Identify the cultural elements the Koreans adapted from the Chinese.
They borrowed from the Chinese writing system and adapted Chinese words. They also integrated Daoism and Confucianism into their beliefs.
Explain how the Korean Peninsula became two separate countries.
There was a struggle between Communists and non-Communists. The Soviet Union administered northern Korea and the United States administered southern Korea. The Soviet Union established a Communist government in North Korea. An election was held in South Korea and American troops left. The North Koreans attempted to unite all of Korea but this failed. Korea was split and a demilitarized zone was set.
Describe how the physical characteristics of North Korea and South Korea differ.
North Korea is less densely populated. It has short, cool summers and bitterly cold winters. The land is mountainous and the mountain rivers are an important source of hydroelectric power. South Korea is very crowded with a subtropical climate. It is less mountainous and better suited for agriculture.
Explain why reunification is a challenge to both North and South Korea.
North and South Korea have found it difficult to reunify because each refuses to compromise on the government. North Korea wants it to be Communist and South Korea does not.
Explain how the migration of people into Southeast Asia has affected Southeast Asia's culture.
Merchants from India sailed the coasts of Southeast Asia, bringing with them Hindu and Buddhist monks. Indian culture blended into Southeast Asian culture. Between the 1200s and 1400s, traders from Arabia and India brought the Muslim religion to Southeast Asia, adding another major religion to the area. The Chinese, however, did not have much influence on Southeast Asia because Chinese did not want to export their culture to the foreigners they saw as barbarians.
Describe how Europeans changed the economy, environment, and political boundaries of Southeast Asia.
Europeans cleared vast areas of forest and established plantations to grow cash crops. They also encouraged landlords to grow rice for export. Family farmers couldn't compete with the land-lords and were forced to work on foreign-owned plantations. Local artisans also went out of business because Europeans could get goods (factory-made) to locals cheaper. Europeans also financed the construction of inland roads and railroads. European colonization also forced indigenous groups into one colony, while other peaceful groups were separated.
Explain why Myanmar struggles with its national identity but Thailand does not.
Myanmar: over 100 languages are spoken, 68% of people belong to the Burman ethnic group whereas the rest belong to a variety of ethnic groups. When Britain took over in the 1800s, they allowed autonomy and made no attempt to culturally unify the people. So once they got independence, there was a great lack of unity. Thailand has more than 85% of the people speaking a dialect of Thai. Their long history with little interference has encouraged unity.
Describe how years of conflict affected Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.
In 1945, Vietnam declared independence from France and after nine years of war gained it. Then Vietnam split into the Communist North and pro-Western South, laying the foundation for another conflict. Neighboring Laos and Cambodia were drawn into fighting when Communists in those countries provided a supply line to the Communists insurgents in South Vietnam. Once the US withdrew from fighting in Vietnam, South Vietnam fell to the Communists and mass numbers of non-Communists were killed.
Explain what keeps the diverse nations of Indonesia and the Philippines united.
Indonesia has enforced unity with military force and the violation of human rights. As for the Philippines, western cultural influences and a shared Asian heritage help give the Filipinos a sense of national unity.
List the natural resources that support the economies of Singapore, Malaysia, and Brunei, and Papua New Guinea.
Singapore: rubber, wood, and petroleum; Malaysia & Brunei: vast reserves of oil; Papua New Guinea: gold and copper ore.
Show how migration affected Australia's population and land use.
Aborigines crossed a bridge from Southeast Asia to Australia. In 1788, European settlement began. Britain shipped prisoners from its overcrowded prisons to Australia. Some other British people moved there to raise sheep and grow wheat. After WWII, people from other European countries moved there too.
Explain why Australia's population is clustered in and around its major cities.
Most of Australia's population is clustered along the coast because the coast is moist and mild and fairly populated while the interior of the continent is extremely arid and unsettled.
Describe how European settlers changed Australia's environment.
When gold was discovered in the outback, the Europeans swarmed this area. They wanted to make use of the land. They built large farms and sheep ranches.
Explain how New Zealand's European majority affected the Maori way of life and the economy of the region.
When Europeans moved there, they began to see themselves as a cooperative nation. The European settlers were responsible for developed the New Zealand economy which is mainly based on agriculture. There are many fertile plains in New Zealand and the marine west coast climate is also good for farming. Also, livestock is raised and kiwifruit is grown.
Describe the physical characteristics of the two types of Pacific islands- high islands and low islands.
High islands support cash crops such as rubber, coffee, and sugar cane. Minerals are extracted on some islands. High islands form when the tops of underwater mountains break the surface of the water. Low islands are caused by the sinking of volcanoes surrounded by coral reefs. When the volcano finally disappears under the water, the coral builds up and sand piles on top of it, creating a low island.
Describe how Antarctica's climate and ice-covered terrain affect wildlife habitation and exploration.
Antarctica has extremely frigid temperatures and a rugged terrain. This makes it difficult for wildlife to survive and it also makes it challenging to explore.
Explain why many scientists consider Antarctica to be a land of valuable natural resources
It has a wealth of scientific information. It is key to a vast store of knowledge. Ice from thousands of years ago gives clue to the environment of that time. Liquid water, preserved under the suface of the ice is thought to contain ancient microscopic life forms.