Yoga Exam 1

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Yoga

union; union of individual self and universal self

Samadhi

perfect, accurate perception; pure being; ecstasy

Parampara

system of handing down knowledge from guru to shishya

Guru

master

Shishya

student

Kirtans

gatherings to sing songs of praise

Siddhi

sensory powers or abnormal abilities; accomplishments

Prana

breath energy; life force

Jiva-atman

individual self-psyche

Parama-atman

supreme self-soul

Samskaras

habits

Moksha

freedom

Bhakti Yoga

Devotional towards a divine object or person

Mantra Yoga

Yoga of potent sound

Karma Yoga

Perceive reality accurately and to do the right thing without desire for results

Jnana Yoga

Discrimination between the real and unreal

Raja Yoga

Yoga of spiritual kings; Become the ruler over one's mind

Tantra Yoga

Yoga of energy control

Hatha Yoga

Yoga of balanced energy

Shamanism

(Period) Yoga practices existed among ancient shamans of Indus Valley

Vedic Yoga

(Period) Period of 4 Vedas; marked my meditation, mantras, surrender of ego; precise execution of rituals

Post Vedic (Upanishads)

(Period) Inner worship; atman = Brahman

Classical Yoga (Yoga Sutra)

(Period) Yoga sutra provides teachings; previous knowledge collected by Patanjali; creates separation between living self and spiritual essence

Tantra & Hatha Yoga

(Period) Integrate spiritual aspirations into worldly lives; intense purification and energy control through 7 chakras; shift towards asana practice and body strengthening/conditioning

Yamas

(8 limbs of ashtanga) Moral disciplines related to societal relationships

Niyamas

(8 limbs of ashtanga) Self restraints related to personal being

Asana

(8 limbs of ashtanga) Firm, motionless seating position

Pranayama

(8 limbs of ashtanga) Breathing exercises

Pratyahara

(8 limbs of ashtanga) Practice of withdrawing from senses

Dhyana

(8 limbs of ashtanga) Meditation / effortless continuation of concentration

Dharana

(8 limbs of ashtanga) Practice of fixing one's mind on something with concentration and focus

Samadhi

(8 limbs of ashtanga) Ecstasy, enlightenment

Ahimsa

(5 yamas) Nonharming/ nonviolence

Satya

(5 yamas) Honesty

Asteya

(5 yamas) Nonstealing

Brahmacharya

(5 yamas) God-like conduct

Aparigraha

(5 yamas) Nonreceiving

Saucha

(5 niyamas) Purification that leads to inner and outer cleanliness

Samtosa

(5 niyamas) Contentment

Tapas

(5 niyamas) Austerity

Svadhyaya

(5 niyamas) Self-study

Ishvara-Pranidhana

(5 niyamas) Devotion to the lord

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