CDH ch 8
|acute||brief in exposure, high intensity|
|cohort||study using large groups over many person years|
|cross sectional||a type of study that examines the relationship between disease and other variables of interest|
|dichotomous scale||a measurement scale that arranges items into two mutually exclusive groups, ex. caries/ no caries|
|endemic||The constant presence of a disease or infectious agent within a given geographical area or population group, normal level of sickness|
|epidemic||occurance of illness, specific health related behavior or other health related events in excess of normal expectancy, above normal level of sickness|
|eradication||Termination of all transmission of infection by extermination of the infectious agent through surveillance and containment|
|Etiology||The science of causes, causality, in common usage, cause|
|incidence||The number of instances of illness commencing or persons falling ill, how many new cases...|
|index|| usually referring to a rating scale or set of numbers derived from a series of observations of specified variables.|
-an abbreviated measurement of the amount or condition or oral disease in a population
-an aid in data collection, allowing for comparisons among population groups
|Monitoring||performance and analysis of routine measurements aimed at detecting changes in the environment or health status of populations.|
|morbidity||Any departure from a state of well being to sickness|
|mortality||related to death|
|multifactorial etiology||referring to the concept that a given disease or other outcome may have more than one cause|
|occurrence||a general term describing the frequency of a disease|
|pandemic||an epidemic occurring over a very wide are|
|prevalence||Number of incidences of a given disease in a given population|
|prospective||a research design that looks forward|
|retrospective||a research design that uses a review of past events|
|sensitivity||a measure of the probability of a correct diagnosis or the probability that any given case will be identified by the test|
|specificity||a measure of the probability of correctly identifying a non-diseased person with a screening test|
|surveillance||Ongoing scrutiny to detect changes in trend or distribution in order to initiate control measures|
|trend||long term movement in a ordered series|
|validity, reliability, clarity, simplicity, objectivity, quantifiability, sensitivity, acceptability||properties of an ideal index|
|validity||the index must measure what it intended to measure, so it should correspond with clinical stages of the disease under study at each point|
|reliability|| the index should be able to measure consistently at different times and under a variety of conditions|
-the term is virtually synonymous with reproducibility, repeatability, and consistency, meaning the ability of the same or different examiners to interpret and use the index in the same way
|clarity, simplicity, objectivity|| 3 properties of an ideal index that states that the criteria should be clear and unambiguous, with mutually exclusive categories|
-ideally an examiner should readily memorize it after practice
|quantifiability||the index must be amenable to statistical analysis, so that the status of a group can be expressed by a distribution, mean, median of other statistical measure|
|sensitivity||the index should be able to detect clinically relevant but small shifts, in either direction, in the condition|
|acceptability||the use of the index should not be unnecessarily painful or demeaning to the subject|
|distribution, affected population, population dynamics, place characteristics, occurrences, time determinants||principle factors analyzed in the study of epidemiology|
|incidence|| -the probability of developing disease|
-numerator counts only new cases
-requires follow-up of individuals in the population
-does not depend on the duration of the illness
-preferred measure when studying cause and effect
|prevalence|| -probability of already having disease|
-numerator counts both new and old cases
-does not require follow-up
-depends on duration of disease (long duration will eventually increase the probability of a disease)
-preferred measure when estimating the population based burden of a chronic disease
|descriptive|| this epidemiologic study asks:|
-who is getting the disease
-where is disease occurring
-when disease is occurring
-findings provide basis for generation of hypotheses
|observational||an epidemiologic study that tests hypothesis|
-it attempts to assess the relationship between exposures and disease by observing exposure-disease association as they naturally occur in population
-reported in terms of relative risk
RR=incidence of disease in exposed group/incidence of disease in unexposed group
|protective effect||relative risk score of .3 or less|
|no difference||relative risk score of 1.0|
|weak evidence||relative risk score of .7-1.5|
|strong association||relative risk score of 3 or greater|
|cross sectional||study that looks at the relationship between disease and other variables of interest as they exist in a defined population at one particular time (cause and effect)|
|case control||this study will identify subjects based on whether the disease of interest is present and then looks backward in time|
|prospective cohort|| this study does not rely on history for past exposure|
-good study for using relative risk of disease
-need large group to follow thru time
-some will leave the group so need to start w/ large group
|retrospective cohort|| this study looks how exposure is developed and reviewed from past records|
-need good records from past to come to valid conclusions
|clinical, community||an experimental study includes what two groups|
|clinical trial|| study used to test new preventative or therapeutic agents|
-could be a new treatment compared to established tx
-compare the incidence of diseases and side effects between the groups in study to draw inferences about the efficacy of tx
|double blind||method of conducting a study that will help to prevent bias during study|
|community||study that is based on a community rather than individuals|
|Dean's|| Fluorosis Index|
-assigns an individual score based on the "second most severely affected tooth (Fluorosis)"
1: very mild, small opaque spots (<25% tooth surface involved)
2: mild, small opaque spots, not as much as 50% of tooth surface involved
3: moderate, brown spots, more than 50% of tooth surface involved
4: severe, pitted enamel
|FRI (Fluorosis Risk Index)||this index "identifies risk factors for fluorosis"|
|TSIF (Tooth Surface Index of Fluorosis)|| this index is "done with "wet" teeth"|
-may miss mild fluorosis
|TF (Thylstrup-Fejerskov Fluorosis Index)|| this index relates to "histological features of affected enamel"|
-calls for "drying of teeth"
-the "most sensitive" of indexes for Fluorosis
|DDE (Developmental Defects of Dental Enamel Index)|| this index gives you a "differential diagnosis: fluorosis and non fluoride opacities"|
-"differential diagnosis between milder forms of dental fluorosis (Questionable, very mild, and mild) and nonfluoride opacities of enamel"
|Angles' (Classification for Occlusion)|| this is a major index for studying occlusion|
-used for treatment planning, not for epidemiological studies
|GI (Gingival Index) (Loe and Silness)||this index "assesses bleeding, color, contour and ulceration of tissue"|
-"used on all or six selected teeth"
0: Normal gingiva
1: mild inflammation, slight change in color, slight edema, and no bleeding on probing
2: moderate inflammation, redness edema, glazing and bleeding on probing
3:severe inflammation marked redness, edema, ulcerations and a tendency toward spontaneous bleeding
|SBI (Sulcular Bleeding Index)|| this index is designed to detect "early" symptoms of gingivitis, checks papillary & marginal gingiva|
-use anterior teeth only
|GBI (Gingival Bleeding Index)|| this index "assesses bleeding" of the gingival margin in response to gentle probing|
+: bleeding within 10 seconds after gentle probing
-: the absence of bleeding 10 seconds after probing
|PDI (Periodontal Disease Index)||this index measures the reversible and irreversible disease|
-"the lower end of the scale deals with gingivitis (reversible) and the upper end is periodontal disease (irreversible)"
-used for the "Ramford" 3,9,12,19, 25, 28 teeth
0: absence of inflammatory signs
1: mild to mod inflammatory ging change that does not extend around the tooth
2: same as above, but extends around the tooth
3: severe ging characterized by marked redness, swelling and the tendency to bleed and ulcerate
4: ging crevice extends apically past the CEJ but not more than 3mm
5: ging crevice extends apically 3-6mm past the CEJ
6: ging crevice extends apically more than 6mm past the CEJ
|CPITN (Community Periodontal Index of Tx Needs)|| this index used "three indicators of periodontal status"|
-"evaluates six sextants"
-"probing is performed with the CPITN-E probe
Scoring is 0-4 (healthy to perio pockets of 6mm or more-black tip no longer showing)
|CPI (Community Periodontal Index)|| this index is a modification of the CPITN|
-"divides teeth into sextants"
-"Provides a measurement of:"
"Gingiva, gingival bleeding, calculus, periodontal pockets"
-"Loss of perio attachment is measured and the highest score is recorded by sextant"
-"used a 0.5 mm ball probe"
|PI (Periodontal Index)||the criteria for this index is "attachment loss is defined as the sum of the clinical probe depth and gingival recession (0-8)|
|PSR (Periodontal Screening and Recording)|| "this index has a preliminary screening to determine need for full mouth perio assessment"|
-"each sextant is probed until a pocket of 3 or 4 is recorded"
|VMI (Volpe-Manhold Index)|| this index measures "new deposits of calculus"|
-patient total score is the sum of the tooth surfaces
|OHI (Simplified Oral Hygiene Index)||this index is used to measure oral hygiene status|
-"uses 6 teeth"
-"Facial of #3, 8, 14, 24, and lingual of #19, and 30"
0: no debris or stain present
1: soft debris covering not more than 1/3 of tooth surface
2: soft debris covering more than 1/3 but < 2/3 of tooth surface
3: soft debris covering > 2/3 of tooth surface
Also OHI-DSI oral debris of OHI-S 0-3 score 0-3
and OHI-CSI calculus portion of OHI-S, score 0-3
|PII (Plaque Index)|| this index "measures the differences in thickness of debris at the gingival margin"|
score 0-3 (no plaque to heavy)
|PHP (patient Hygiene Performance)|| this index was developed to "assess individual's performance in removing debris after tooth brushing instruction"|
-"uses disclosing solution"
-"select 6 teeth"
-"scoring 0-5 (best to worst"
|O'Leary Plaque Index|| this index "monitors oral hygiene performance"|
-"indicates the location of plaque"
# of plaque surfaces present/total # of tooth surfaces exam'd
= then X100 = %plaque
|DMF (Decayed, Missing, Filled: can be teeth or surfaces)||this index is used to measure past and present caries experience of a population with Permanent teeth|
"D=untx, frank cavitation, (decayed)
F=evidence of restorative tx resulting from caries (filled)
M=evidence of a lost tooth due to caries (missing)
Decay+Missing+Filled/Total individuals=DMF Value"
"def/defs- same but for primary teeth (e is extracted due to caries)"
|UTN (unmet treatment needs of a particular population)|| index measures tx needs and can also be used to compare tx need of one population with those of another|
mean # of decayed teeth/mean # of decayed and filled teeth
|RCI (Root Caries Index)|| this index evaluates the extent of root caries and a "patient's risk" for root caries disease|
|BSS (Basic Screening Survey)|| this index "assesses untreated dental caries and dental caries experience on per person basis"|
-"YES or NO"