Exam 2 Multiple Choice

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True/False, multiple choice, & matching Questions ***38-43 includes normal function and symptoms of regions of brain***

The relative refractory period of a neuron limits the frequency of action potentials carried, but allows a higher frequency of action potentials if the neuron is subjected to a greater depolarization.
A. True
B. False

A. True

A stretch reflex consists of three neurons: one sensory,one interneuron,and one motor neuron.
A. True
B. False

B. False *2 neurons; no interneuron

A stretch reflex consists of two synapses between neurons (including the afferent sensory neuron and the efferent motor neuron).
A. True
B. False

B. False *one synapse (monosynaptic)

The delay in a stretch reflex consists of conduction time in a sensory neuron, one synapse in the CNS, and conduction time in the motor neuron.
A. True
B. False

A. True

An increased frequency of action potentials in a postganglionic sympathetic vasomotor neuron typically brings about increased blood flow in the blood vessel.
A. True
B. False

B. False *decreased blood flow

A decreased frequency of action potentials in a postganglionic sympathetic vasomotor neuron typically brings about decreased blood flow in the blood vessel.
A. True
B. Flase

B. False *increased blood flow

In someone with chronic hypertension, the baroreceptor afferents have a higher frequency of action potentials at 120 mm Hg than in someone with normal blood pressure.
A. True
B. False

B. False *lower frequency of APs at 120 mm Hg

The delay in a stretch reflex consists of conduction time in a sensory neuron, two synapses in the CNS, and conduction time in the motor neuron.
A. True
B. False

B. False *one synapse in the CNS

Which of the following types of receptors provide information about muscle contraction (tension)?
A. muscle spindles
B. Golgi tendon organs
C. joint receptors
D. pain receptors
E. vestibular receptors

B. Golgi tendon organs

Which of the following types of receptors provide direct information about muscle length and change of length?
A. muscle spindles
B. Golgi tendon organs
C. joint receptors
D. pain receptors
E. vestibular receptors

A. muscle spindles

Which of the following types of cells is innervated by the alpha motor neurons?
A. extrafusal muscle fibers
B. intrafusal muscle fibers
C. postganglionic sympathetic neurons
D. myocardial cells
E. pacemaker cells of the SA and AV nodes

A. extrafusal muscle fibers

Which of the following types of cells is innervated by the gamma motor neurons?
A. extrafusal muscle fibers
B. intrafusal muscle fibers
C. postganglionic sympathetic neurons
D. myocardial cells
E. pacemaker cells of the SA and AV nodes

B. intrafusal muscle fibers

Which of the following types of cells is directly innervated by the efferent motor neurons of the vagus nerve?
A. extrafusal muscle fibers
B. intrafusal muscle fibers
C. postganglionic sympathetic neurons
D. myocardial cells
E. pacemaker cells of the SA and AV nodes

E. pacemaker cells of the SA and AV nodes

Which of the following types of cells are directly innervated by sympathetic postganglionic neurons?
A. intrafusal muscle fibers
B. extrafusal muscle fibers
C. postganglionic sympathetic neurons
D. myocardial cells
E. pacemaker cells of the SA and AV nodes
F. D & E above

F. D & E above
**(D. myocardial cells, E. pacemaker cells of the SA and AV nodes)

ALL BUT ONE of the following can be direct or indirect results of stimulation of gamma motor neurons. Identify the "misfit" that IS NOT associated with gamma motor activity.
A. increased contraction in intrafusal muscle fibers
B. increased action potential frequency in muscle spindle afferents
C. increased "tone" in extrafusal muscle fibers
D. increased activity in Golgi tendon organ afferents for the same muscle
E. increased perception of muscle tone or tension

E. increased perception of muscle tone or tension

* pay attention if any of the true answers are reversed on exam*

Which of the following is an abnormal extension of the foot in response to gently stroking the sole of the foot?
A. atherosclerosis
B. Babinski sign
C. edema
D. primary hypertension
E. secondary hypertension
F. mitral stenosis
G. Raynaud's phenomenon
H. ventricular fibrillation

B. Babinski sign

Which of the following describes an accumulation of fatty deposits in blood vessels generally, often leading to compromised circulation downstream, and other serious abnormalities?
A. atherosclerosis
B. Babinski sign
C. edema
D. primary hypertension
E. secondary hypertension
F. mitral stenosis
G. Raynaud's phenomenon
H. ventricular fibrillation

A. atherosclerosis

Which of the following describes a change in the balance of filtration and absorption in the exchange vessels (capillaries and venules), leading to accumulation of fluid in the extracellular space?
A. atherosclerosis
B. Babinski sign
C. edema
D. primary hypertension
E. secondary hypertension
F. mitral stenosis
G. Raynaud's phenomenon
H. ventricular fibrillation

C. edema

Which of the following describes chronic elevation of blood pressure that has no clearly identifiable cause?
A. atherosclerosis
B. Babinski sign
C. edema
D. primary hypertension
E. secondary hypertension
F. mitral stenosis
G. Raynaud's phenomenon
H. ventricular fibrillation

D. primary hypertension

Which of the following describes chronic elevation of blood pressure that is caused indirectly by another condition (often a hormonal abnormality)?
A. atherosclerosis
B. Babinski sign
C. edema
D. primary hypertension
E. secondary hypertension
F. mitral stenosis
G. Raynaud's phenomenon
H. ventricular fibrillation

E. secondary hypertension

Which of the following describes an abnormal extreme vasoconstriction in the extremities following exposure to cold?
A. atherosclerosis
B. Babinski sign
C. edema
D. primary hypertension
E. secondary hypertension
F. mitral stenosis
G. Raynaud's phenomenon
H. ventricular fibrillation

G. Raynaud's phenomenon

Which of the following describes a stiff or damaged atrio-ventricular valve on the left side of the heart?
A. atherosclerosis
B. Babinski sign
C. edema
D. primary hypertension
E. secondary hypertension
F. mitral stenosis
G. Raynaud's phenomenon
H. ventricular fibrillation

F. mitral stenosis

Which of the following is associated with a prolonged conduction time of activity in the ventricular myocardium, so that the refractory period ends too early in a region, leading to contraction out of the normal sequence, and disorganized contraction of the myocardium?
A. atherosclerosis
B. Babinski sign
C. edema
D. primary hypertension
E. secondary hypertension
F. mitral stenosis
G. Raynaud's phenomenon
H. ventricular fibrillation

H. ventricular fibrillation

Which of the following correctly describes what happens if the cell body of a motor neuron is depolarized above its threshold and held at this level for 5 seconds?
A. The motor neuron initiates a series of "all-or-none" action potentials that lasts 5 seconds.
B. The motor neuron fires a single action potential and cannot respond for 5 seconds.
C. The motor neuron fires a series of action potentials that gradually decrease in amplitude, indicating fatigue.

A. The motor neuron initiates a series of "all-or-none" action potentials that lasts 5 seconds.

ALL BUT ONE of the following are ways in which the force of muscle contraction may vary. Identify the misfit that does not participate in the regulation of muscle tension in mammals.
A. inhibitory motor neurons antagonize the excitatory effects of alpha motor neurons on skeletal muscle
B. different starting lengths of a muscle produce different levels of contractile force
C. increasing or decreasing the numbers of active motor units in a muscle changes the force produced during contraction
D. increasing or decreasing the frequency of action potentials in an alpha motor neuron changes the temporal summation of muscle contractions and therefore the total force

A. inhibitory motor neurons antagonize the excitatory effects of alpha motor neurons on skeletal muscle

ALL BUT ONE of the following are patterns of somatic motor activity that are organized in the forebrain. Identify the misfit that is integrated at a lower level of the central nervous system.
A. tension control reflex for extensor muscles of one leg
B. orientation of the head toward a surprising sound
C. reaching with the hand and arm, or grasping at an object
D. licking, chewing, swallowing
E. vocalization

A. tension control reflex for extensor muscles of one leg

Which of the following symptoms would be found specifically in a patient with damage to the dorsal rootlets for a limb?
A. resting tremor, rigidity, and akinesia
B. total paralysis of the muscles of a limb
C. drunken, reeling gait
D. decreased tone, loss of initiative, and Babinski sign in one foot
E. "obstinate progression" in which the subject continues locomotion, even walking persistently into an obstacle
F. loss of perceived sensations on the same side, and loss of reflexes originating on the same side
G. intention tremor in the hand(s), with errors in rate, range, distance, force, and an inability to perform tapping movements

F. loss of perceived sensations on the same side, and loss of reflexes originating on the same side

Write in the LETTER over the area in the Figure that corresponds with planning a movement such as jumping on to a high platform (before any movement has begun, apart from taking an initial position)
A. A
B. B
C. C
http://i.quizlet.com/i/YOjxahavbVZ0RLfKUdffJw_m.jpg

A

Write in the LETTER over the area in the Figure that corresponds with executing a movement such as jumping on to a high platform (during the movement).
A. A
B. B
C. C
http://i.quizlet.com/i/YOjxahavbVZ0RLfKUdffJw_m.jpg

C

21. When a higher frequency of action potentials arrives at an axon terminal, how are neurotransmitters affected?
A. More neurotransmitter molecules are released into the synapse.
B. Different neurotransmitter molecules are released into the synapse.
C. Fewer neurotransmitter molecules are released into the synapse.
D. There is no effect -- all signals cause the same release of neurotransmitter molecules.

A. More neurotransmitter molecules are released into the synapse.

Which of the following correctly describe the regulatory pattern of a stretch reflex?
A. open loop
B. negative feedback
C. positive feedback
D. feedforward
E. chaotic (nonlinear dynamical)
F. regulatory cascade

B. negative feedback

Which of the following correctly describe the regulatory pattern of a flexor withdrawal reflex due to pain?
A. open loop
B. negative feedback
C. positive feedback
D. feedforward
E. chaotic (nonlinear dynamical)
F. regulatory cascade

A. open loop

Which of the following correctly describe the regulatory pattern during the rising phase of an action potential?
A. open loop
B. negative feedback
C. positive feedback
D. feedforward
E. chaotic (nonlinear dynamical)
F. regulatory cascade

C. positive feedback

Which of the following correctly describes the regulatory pattern of a visual placing reflex?
A. open loop
B. negative feedback
C. positive feedback
D. feedforward
E. chaotic (nonlinear dynamical)
F. regulatory cascade

D. feedforward

Which of the following sensors significantly increase their action potential frequency if you contract your biceps muscle to pick up a heavy weight in a telokinetic (voluntary) movement?
A. biceps muscle spindle afferents
B. biceps Golgi tendon organs (Gto's)
C. elbow joint receptors
D. triceps muscle spindle afferents (opposing the biceps muscle)
E. triceps Gto's

B. biceps Golgi tendon organs (Gto's)
C. elbow joint receptors
D. triceps muscle spindle afferents (opposing the biceps muscle)

Which of the following sensors significantly increase their action potential frequency if you contract your triceps muscle to push open a heavy door in a telokinetic (voluntary) movement? (The triceps is the extensor muscle at the elbow, and opposes the biceps.)
A. biceps muscle spindle afferents
B. biceps Golgi tendon organs (Gto's)
C. elbow joint receptors
D. triceps muscle spindle afferents (opposing the biceps muscle)
E. triceps Gto's

A. biceps muscle spindle afferents
C. elbow joint receptors
E. triceps Gto's

Which of the following neurotransmitters is released in the heart at the neuroeffector junctions of the vagus nerve?
A. acetylcholine (ACh)
B. neuropeptide Y (NPY)
C. norepinephrine (NE)
D. pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)
E. serotonin (5-HT)

A. acetylcholine (ACh)

What is the normal function, and symptoms after damage of the Spinal cord ventral horn?

normal function: α motor neurons -> extrafusal contraction

symptoms: total paralysis of related muscle(s) on same side

What is the normal function, and symptoms after damage of the cerebellum?

normal function: coordination of complex learned movements

symptoms: intention tremor; errors in rate, range, distance, force; inability to perform tapping

What is the normal function, and symptoms after damage of the substantia nigra?

normal function: "refining" of sophisticated movements, especially with the hands

symptoms: resting tremor; akinesia; rigidity

What is the normal function, and symptoms after damage of the hand area of the primary motor area of cerebral cortex?

normal function: telokinetic (conscious, voluntary) use of hands, fingers

symptoms: Babinski sign on opposite side; hypotonia; loss of initiative & discrete use of digits

What is the normal function, and symptoms after damage of the spinal cord dorsal roots?

normal function: sensory relay - to brain for perception; to ventral horn for reflexes

symptoms: loss of reflexes on the same side; loss of perceived sensations; able to stand, walk, use limbs purposefully

What is the normal function, and symptoms after damage of the midbrain locomotor area?

normal function: initiator commands for spinal cord CPG's

symptoms: obstinate progression (can't start or stop locomotion)

An individual is has a myocardial infarction (MI; "heart attack"). Use the regulatory mechanisms that we have studied to predict the responses to this condition. Fill in the blanks before each of the parameters or functions below
__cardiac output (CO)
__ blood pressure (BP)
__ action potential (AP) frequency in baroreceptor afferents
__ parasympathetic activity to the heart
__ sympathetic activity (generally)
__ heart rate (HR)
__ blood flow to the skin

↓ cardiac output (CO)
↓ blood pressure (BP)
↓ action potential (AP) frequency in baroreceptor afferents
↓ parasympathetic activity to the heart
↑ sympathetic activity (generally)
↑ heart rate (HR)
↓ blood flow to the skin

Which of the following is formed from circulating plasma protein, and during the process of hemostasis forms a meshwork of polymer fibers that reinforces a platelet plug?
A. Serotonin (5-HT)
B. plasmin
C. fibrin
D. fibrinogen
E. thrombin
F. aspirin

C. fibrin

Which of the following terms is a protein that catalyzes the formation of a crucial material for formation of blood clot, and also has a positive feedback effect that increases its own formation?
A. Serotonin (5-HT)
B. plasmin
C. fibrin
D. fibrinogen
E. thrombin
F. aspirin

E. thrombin

Which of the following terms is an enzyme incorporated into a forming blood clot, and later facilitates fibrinolysis?
A. Serotonin (5-HT)
B. plasmin
C. fibrin
D. fibrinogen
E. thrombin
F. aspirin

B. plasmin

Which of the following can increase cardiac output (either directly or indirectly)?
A. increased activity in the sympathetic nerves to the heart
B. decreased activity in the sympathetic nerves to the heart
C. increased activity in the parasympathetic nerves to the heart
D. increased activity in the parasympathetic nerves to the heart
E. increased constriction (or "tone") in systemic veins
F. decreased constriction (or "tone") in systemic veins

A. increased activity in the sympathetic nerves to the heart
D. increased activity in the parasympathetic nerves to the heart
E. increased constriction (or "tone") in systemic veins

Which of the following describes the increase of blood flow through a tissue that is active and metabolizing at a high rate?
A. Frank-Starling law of the heart
B. active hyperemia
C. reactive hyperemia
D. myogenic autoregulation
E. venoconstriction

B. active hyperemia

Which of the following describes the increase in blood flow that occurs when blood flow has been greatly reduced through a tissue, and then allowed to resume?
A. Frank-Starling law of the heart
B. active hyperemia
C. reactive hyperemia
D. myogenic autoregulation
E. venoconstriction

C. reactive hyperemia

Which of the following describes the increased contraction of the smooth muscle in a small artery following a short term increase in blood pressure in that region?
A. Frank-Starling law of the heart
B. active hyperemia
C. reactive hyperemia
D. myogenic autoregulation
E. venoconstriction

D. myogenic autoregulation

Which of the following normally occurs when there is an increase in baroreceptor activity?
A. increased sympathetic nerve activity to the heart
B. decreased sympathetic nerve activity to the heart
C. increased vagus nerve activity to the heart
D. decreased vagus nerve activity to the heart
E. constriction of the smooth muscle in many arterioles
F. dilation of the smooth muscle in many arterioles

B. decreased sympathetic nerve activity to the heart
C. increased vagus nerve activity to the heart
F. dilation of the smooth muscle in many arterioles

Which of the following correctly describes the effect of artificially stretching a muscle? (An external force stretches the muscle. Please consider reflex effects and other simple spinal cord patterns.)
A. There will be decreased tone in the muscle.
B. There will be an increased frequency of action potentials in the alpha motor neurons to the muscle.
C. There will be an increased frequency of action potentials in the alpha motor neurons to the opposing muscle.
D. There will be an increased frequency of action potentials in the gamma motor neurons to the muscle.
E. There will be increased contraction in the extensor muscle of the opposite limb.

B. There will be an increased frequency of action potentials in the alpha motor neurons to the muscle.

Which of the following correctly describes the effect of directly stimulating the extrafusal fibers of a muscle? (No other stimuli are given. Please consider reflex effects and other simple spinal cord patterns.)
A. There will be increased tone in the intrafusal fibers of the muscle.
B. There will be a decreased frequency of action potentials in the alpha motor neurons to the opposing muscle.
C. There will be a decreased frequency of action potentials in the gamma motor neurons to the muscle.
D. There will be a decreased frequency of action potentials in the alpha motor neurons to the muscle.
E. There will be decreased contraction in the extensor muscle of the opposite limb

D. There will be a decreased frequency of action potentials in the alpha motor neurons to the muscle.

Which of the following general kinds of neurons typically develops last in a particular region of the CNS?
A. input (sensory) neurons
B. interneurons (local circuit neurons)
C. output (motor) neurons

B. interneurons (local circuit neurons)

Which of the following general kinds of neurons typically develops first in a particular region of the CNS?
A. input (sensory) neurons
B. interneurons (local circuit neurons)
C. output (motor) neurons

C. output (motor) neurons

Identify the most important structures or mechanisms that contribute to the blood-brain barrier.

tight capillaries
astrocytes that surround blood vessels
highly selective permeable membrane that allows diffusion of lipids, gases.
other substances must go through channels of special proteins. (transport)

Briefly describe the relationship of CSF to cerebral ECF.

They are in equilibrium and spill over. Thus examining CSF gives clues to ECF

Identify one type of molecule that passes easily between blood and brain ECF.

oxygen (gases) (and any other lipid soluble material or water)

Which of the following types of stimuli are normally detected by the vestibular apparatus?
A. eye movements
B. changes of head position with respect to gravity
C. rotation of the head
D. sound
E. changes of limb position or contraction

B. changes of head position with respect to gravity
C. rotation of the head

Which of the following supply excitation to flexor alpha motor neurons in one leg? (Please consider simple reflexes and spinal cord patterns. The effects may be directly from sensory neurons to the flexor α motor neurons, or via 1 or more interneurons.)
A. muscle spindle afferents of the same flexor muscle
B. Golgi tendon organ (Gto) afferents of the same flexor muscle
C. pain stimulation to the same leg as the flexor muscle
D. pain stimulation to the opposite leg as the flexor muscle

A. muscle spindle afferents of the same flexor muscle
C. pain stimulation to the same leg as the flexor muscle

Which of the following will produce a rapid increase in baroreceptor activity?
A. suddenly moving from lying down to standing up
B. standing on your head
C. thinking about exercising

B. standing on your head

Which of the following correctly describe the effects of suddenly moving from lying down to standing up?
A. increased sympathetic output to the heart and blood vessels
B. decreased sympathetic output to the heart and blood vessels
C. increased parasympathetic output to the heart and blood vessels
D. decreased parasympathetic output to the heart and blood vessels

A. increased sympathetic output to the heart and blood vessels
D. decreased parasympathetic output to the heart and blood vessels

Which of the following symptoms are uniquely found in patients with damage to the primary motor area of the cerebral cortex (pyramidal neurons)?
A. resting tremor, rigidity, and akinesia
B. total paralysis of the muscles of a limb
C. drunken, reeling gait
D. decreased tone, loss of initiative, and Babinski sign in one foot
E. "obstinate progression" in which the subject continues locomotion, even walking persistently into an obstacle

D. decreased tone, loss of initiative, and Babinski sign in one foot

Which of the following symptoms are uniquely found in patients with damage to the dopamine (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra?
A. resting tremor, rigidity, and akinesia
B. total paralysis of the muscles of a limb
C. drunken, reeling gait
D. decreased tone, loss of initiative, and Babinski sign in one foot
E. "obstinate progression" in which the subject continues locomotion, even walking persistently into an obstacle

A. resting tremor, rigidity, and akinesia

Which of the following symptoms are found in an experimental animal with its ventral roots cut in the region of a limb?
A. resting tremor, rigidity, and akinesia
B. total paralysis of the muscles of a limb
C. drunken, reeling gait
D. decreased tone, loss of initiative, and Babinski sign in one foot
E. "obstinate progression" in which the subject continues locomotion, even walking persistently into an obstacle

C. drunken, reeling gait

Which of the following symptoms are found in an experimental animal with damage to the midbrain locomotor area?
A. resting tremor, rigidity, and akinesia
B. total paralysis of the muscles of a limb
C. drunken, reeling gait
D. decreased tone, loss of initiative, and Babinski sign in one foot
E. "obstinate progression" in which the subject continues locomotion, even walking persistently into an obstacle

E. "obstinate progression" in which the subject continues locomotion, even walking persistently into an obstacle

In moving from a standing position to lying down, which of the following occur as a result of direct effects or cardiovascular reflexes?
A. heart rate decreases
B. heart rate increases
C. total peripheral resistance increases
D. total peripheral resistance decreases
E. blood volume in the legs decreases
F. blood volume in the legs increases

A. heart rate decreases
D. total peripheral resistance decreases
E. blood volume in the legs decreases

Match the potential change from the list of effects caused by the ion movement. The cell starts with a resting potential of -70mV.
A. depolarize
B. hyperpolarize

__ Na+ enters the cell
__ K+ leaves the cell
__ Cl- enters the cell
__ Ca2+ enters the cell

_A_ Na+ enters the cell
_B_ K+ leaves the cell
_B_ Cl- enters the cell
_A_ Ca2+ enters the cell

An action potential is:
A. Caused by a temporary increase in the Na+ and K+ permeabilities along an axon
B. the same magnitude and shape at the beginning and end of an axon
C. initiated by inhibitory postsynaptic potentials
D. the activity transmitted from the end of an axon to a dendrite or a cell body of another neuron
E. the wave of changes in charge distribution that moves along an axon during conduction

A. Caused by a temporary increase in the Na+ and K+ permeabilities along an axon
B. the same magnitude and shape at the beginning and end of an axon
E. the wave of changes in charge distribution that moves along an axon during conduction

In the paradoxical reversal phenomenon, which of the following motor structures are required for the movement to occur normally?
A. primary motor area (pyramidal cortex)
B. other motor areas of the cerebral cortex
C. basal nuclei (basal ganglia)
D. hypothalamus
E. midbrain locomotor area
F. substantia nigra of the midbrain
G. vestibular nuclei
H. spinal cord reflexes (length control, tension control, etc. )

A. primary motor area (pyramidal cortex)
H. spinal cord reflexes (length control, tension control, etc. )

Which of the following correctly describes the effect of quickly moving from a lying down to a standing position?
A. the baroreceptors are stimulated and increase their frequency of action potentials
B. there will be increased activity in the vagus nerve
C. there will be decreased activity in the vagus nerve
D. there will be increased activity in the sympathetic nerves, which increases cardiac output
E. there will be increased systemic blood pressure, which decreases cardiac output

D. there will be increased activity in the sympathetic nerves, which increases cardiac output

Which of the following are prominent regulatory processes in the formation of thrombin?
A. open loop
B. negative feedback
C. positive feedback
D. nonlinear ("chaotic") regulation
E. regulatory cascade

E. regulatory cascade

Which of the following molecules is incorporated into a forming blood clot, and can later be activated to assist in dissolving the clot?
A. Serotonin (5-HT)
B. plasmin
C. fibrin
D. fibrinogen
E. thrombin
F. aspirin

A. Serotonin (5-HT)

Which of the following correctly describe properties of the ventricular myocardial contractile cells?
A. capable of temporal summation of the effects of action potentials to produce a greater force of contraction
B. greater concentration of Ca++ produces a greater for of contraction
C. receive endings of the vagus nerve to increase K+ permeability
D. receive endings of the sympathetic nerves to increase the force of contraction
E. respond to increasing stretch by increasing their force of contraction

B. greater concentration of Ca++ produces a greater for of contraction
D. receive endings of the sympathetic nerves to increase the force of contraction
E. respond to increasing stretch by increasing their force of contraction

Which of the following correctly describes the risks of other conditions that follow atherosclerosis?
A. increased risk of heart failure
B. increased risk of stroke
C. increased risk of aneurism
D. increased risk of obesity
E. increased risk of sudden death from left ventricular hypertrophy

A. increased risk of heart failure
B. increased risk of stroke
C. increased risk of aneurism
E. increased risk of sudden death from left ventricular hypertrophy

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