Skeletal System Terms

57 terms by MsIngle

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sternum

breastbone

periosteum

a tough, fibrous connective tissue that covers the outside of the bone

epiphysis

end of long bone

diaphysis

bone shaft

medullary canal

hollow region in bone shaft which acts as a storage area for bone marrow

red marrow

flexible tissue found mostly in flat and long bones, produces red blood cells, platelets and most white blood cells

yellow marrow

mostly fatty tissue found in long bones, can be converted back to red marrow if the body needs it, produces some white cells

osteocyte

mature bone cell

appendicular skeleton

the bones of the shoulders, arms, hips, legs, and pelvis

axial skeleton

the bones of the head, chest, and back

ossification

formation of bone in the body, also known as osteogenesis

endosteum

a lining inside the medullary canal and spongy bone tissues

articular cartilage

a thin layer of flexible connective tissue covering the epiphysis to absorb shock where two bones meet to form a joint

osteoblast

immature bone cell that secretes calcium and other minerals to form new bones

fontanels

"soft spots" of cartilage in the newborn skull, giving space for the skull to enlarge as the brain grows; usually close between 18-24 months of age.

cranium

8 cranial bones of the skull which protect the brain

facial bones

14 bones of the skull which protect and support the eyes, ears, nose and mouth

suture lines

fibrous connective tissue joints that hold the bony plates of the cranium together

sinuses

air spaces in and around the facial bones

vertebrae

the 26 bones in the spinal columm (7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 1 sacrum, 1 coccyx)

coccyx

tailbone

costae

ribs (7 pairs of true ribs, 5 pairs of false ribs)

thorax

chest cavity

clavicle

collarbone

scapula

shoulder bone

ileum, ischium, pubis

3 hip bones, fused together

ligament

a tough, whitish band of connective tissue which holds bones together (bone to bone)

joint

an area where two or more bones connect; an articulation

arthritis

inflammation of the joints

rheumatoid arthritis

chronic autoimmune disease affecting connective tissue, especially in joints, causing pain, swelling and deformity

osteoarthritis

degenerative form of arthritis in which the joint wears out due to aging, injury, or trauma

sprain

torn ligament

dislocation

a bone is displaced from a joint

fracture

a crack or break in the bone

greenstick fracture

the bone is bent and split but does not completely break, fibers separate lengthwise

simple fracture

the bone breaks completely but does not pierce through the skin (also called a closed fracture)

compound fracture

the bone breaks completely and pierces through the skin (also called an open fracture)

comminuted fracture

the bone splinters into more than two pieces

hemopoiesis

the production of red blood cells

osteoprogenitor

a type of stem cell which can turn into other types of cells as needed, in this case into osteoblasts

osteoclast

a type of cell that breaks down old or damaged bone material and helps return stored minerals to the blood stream

osteoporosis

condition of decreasing bone density, primarily due to aging

osteomyelitis

inflammation of the bone caused by infection

Calcium

mineral stored in the bones, bones may release for use by the body

Scoliosis

condition where the spine may curve from side to side

arthritis

painful inflammation of the joints

kyphosis

abnormal curvature of the thoracic spine (hunchback)

mandible

lower movable jaw bone, used for chewing

Femur

largest and strongest bone in the body

ball and socket

this is the type of joint that allows the greatest freedom of movement

rotation

allows a bone to move around a central axis, like the head moving from side to side

sprain

wrenching of a joint, producing a stretching or laceration of ligaments

extension

the act of increasing the angle of two bones

synovial fluid

the fluid that reduces friction during joint movement

hemopoesis

process of blood cell formation in the red bone marrow of bones

suture

immovable joint, where cranial bones join together

lordosis

medical term for swayback

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