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Pinpoint pupils occurs in...

the use of morphine and related drugs, heroin, barbiturates.

Dilated pupils occurs in...

shock, heart failure, and other emergencies and in the use of hallucinogens and amphetamines, LSD, cocaine or marijuana.

Suprahyoid muscles:

"Don't get so mad, Supraman!"
D-igastric, G-eniohyoid, S-tylohyoid, M-ylohyoid

Infrahyoid muscles:

"That was an inferior TOSS!"
T-hyrohyoid, O-mohyoid, S-ternohyoid, S-ternothyroid

Heavy calculus formers have higher salivary levels of:

calcium and phosphorus.

Light calculus formers have higher levels of:

parotid pyrophosphate.

Pyrophosphate is an inhibitor of:

calcification and is also used in anticalculus dentifrices.

A cleft lip may occur sometime between...

the 4th and 7th weeks of gestation.

Cleft lip is apparent by the end of:

the second month in utero.

A cleft palate may occur sometime between the...

8th and 12th week of gestation.

Cleft palate is apparent by the end of the:

third month in utero.

A-C

Alpha Contracts

B-D

Beta Dilates

Fluorescent light and x-rays produce the latent image on intraoral radiographs. T or F?

False

The visible image on an extraoral film is the result of chemical processing of the exposed film. T or F?

False

Model plaster or stone is sifted into the water before mixing in order to:

prevent entrapment of air

Approved Fluoride components found in over-the-counter dentrifices include:

A. sodium fluoride
B. stannous fluoride
C. sodium monofluorophosphate

Acquired pellicle is initially derived from:

Saliva

When a patient protrudes his tongue, deviation to the right side is noted.
This suggests a disturbance in motor function of which of the following cranial nerves?

XII

What can cause gingival hyperplasia?

- Anticonvulsants (dilantin, phenytoin, sodium valproate )
- Calcium channel blockers (nifedipine, diltiazem)
- Cyclosporine A (anti-rejection medicine for replacement therapy..etc)
- Genetic factors
- Hormonal changes - puberty, pregnancy

Albuterol (an adrenergic B2 agonist) can cause?

xerostomia and insomnia! (Avoid mouthrinses with alcohol content)

Water soluble vitamins?

B's and C

Fat soluble vitamins?

D, E, A, K

PSR probe - screening

1=A Absence of bleeding
2=B Bleeding present
3=C Calculus detected
4=D Disappearance of black band begins
5=E Entire black band goes in pocket.

Hyperplasia:

Increase in cell NUMBERS

Hypertrophy:

Increase in cell SIZE

Factors that are true of the density of a radiograph is/are?

A) May be increased by increasing exposure time
B) May be increased by increasing mA
C) May be increased by increasing kVP

Why might you see candidiasis in a patient on antibiotic therapy?

A side effect of the antibiotic. Candida is present in everyone's mouth but repeated courses or long-term use of antibiotics can kill off the good bacteria, allowing Candida to flourish.

Desquamative gingivitis may be seen in:

A) cicatricial pemphigoid
B) pemphigus vulgaris
C) lichen planus

Enamel hypocalcification has an appearance of:

Chalky white spots.

Remember plaque is always the primary?

CAUSE. (Everything else are just contributing factors.)

Autonomy:

the quality or state of being self governing.

Beneficence:

doing or producing good.

Justice:

the maintenance or administration of what is just especially by the impartial adjustment of conflicting claims or the assignment of merited rewards or punishment.

Nonmaleficence:

not committing harm or evil.

The basic ethical principles are:

1) Nonmaleficence
2) Beneficence
3) Autonomy
4) Justice

An ethical dilemma occurs when one or more ethical principles are in conflict. T or F?

True. example - if a hygienist has a patient who is required to have antibiotic premedication and they instruct the hygienist to “go head” with treatment for scaling and root planning, then that is an ethical dilemma. The patient is expressing his autonomy while the hygienist knows that lack of premedication could cause harm, thus nonmaleficence is involved.

In the principle of nonmaleficence, the health care providers first obligation to the patient is:

To do no harm.

Over time, the principle of nonmaleficence has evolved to include the:

Preventing and removing harm.

The classification of harm and good includes:

A) Not to inflict harm
B) Prevent harm
C) Remove harm

Beneficence and nonmaleficence are often linked because they are both founded in the _______ tradition.

Hippocratic. The Hippocratic tradition requires the physician to do what will best benefit the patient.

The following defines the healing professions and sets them apart from other occupations.

Commitment to assist and benefit others.

Which principle is heart of many ethical dilemmas that occur in dentistry?

Principle of autonomy. (Autonomy is what gives rise to the concept of permitting individuals to make their own decisions about their health. Sometimes what the patient believes is best is not what the healthcare provider believes is best.)

______ is often listed as one of the major principles of ethics.

Veracity

An example of an ethical dilemma would be when an individual intentionally charges an insurance company for dental procedures that were not performed.

False. This would be an example of an unethical and unlawful behavior (fraud), but not an ethical dilemma.

Layers of aluminum metal used to filter x-ray beam:

X-ray filter.
1.5 mm added filtration for machines operating at ≤ 70kVp
2.5 mm added filtration for machines operating at > 70 kVp

Arthrography -

joint radiography, good for TMJ

Axial (basilar)(submentovertex) projection -

"jug handle view", cranial base

Caldwell projection -

all aspects of the orbit, sinuses

Computed tomography (CT) -

good for measuring tissue thickness when placing implants

Lateral (Cephalometric) head plate-

common projection used for orthodontics to assess facial growth

Lateral Jaw-

records right or left side of the jaws

Lateral Oblique mandibular projection-

mandibular condyle, coronoid process, ramus and body of Mandible.

Lateral Skull projection -

sinuses, nasopharynx, maxilla

Panoramic-

records entire maxilla, mandible, and immediately adjacent structures, impacted teeth,etc

Posterior-anterior (PA) projection-

entire mandible except condyles

Towne & Reverse Towne projection-

condyle, occipital bone, orbital floor, zygomatic arch, middle ear structures

Waters projection-

view useful for examining maxillary sinuses as well as frontal and ethmoid sinuses

8" PID and was set at 26 exposure time, changing to a 16" PID and a fully functioning xray machine, what would happen to the intensity if set at proper exposures?

The intensity would be decreased by 4

Which has no antibody production associated with it?

Type IV, or delayed hypersensitivity is the only reaction that does not have an associated antibody.
Primary antibodies are: Type I=IgE Type II= IgG Type III= Type IgG

Type of particulate radiation:

A) alpha particles
B) beta particles
C) protons

Identify the reduction in exposure time when changing from D-speed film to E-speed film:

by 1/2 - From D spead to E speed, you decrease exposure by one-half

When a film is subjected to sudden temperature changes (such as between developer solution and water bath)...

reticulation of emulsion can occur.

Cohesion:

creates force that causes LIKE molecules to attach to one another
Ex. - welding and direct gold restorations

Adhesion:

creates forces that cause UNLIKE molecules to attach to one another
Ex. - resin to enamel and plaque to tooth structure

Hyperparathyroidism:

increased secretion of parathyroid hormone.

Hypothyroidism:

decreased thyroid hormone secretion.

Hyperthyroidism:

excessive thyroid hormone secretion.

Hyperthyroidism Oral and Clinical Manifestations:

-bone loss, premature eruption of teeth, early perio disease
- exophtalmus, weakness, reddish tint to skin

Hypothyroidism Oral and Clinical Manifestations:

- thick lips, delayed tooth eruption
- In Children - cretinism
- In Adults - myxedema

Hyperparathyroidism Oral and Clinical Manifestations:

- Increased radiolucency of bone, cystic like spaces in maxilla and mandible
- weakness, anorexia, constipation, polyuria, polydipsea

Hyperglycemia (Diabetic Coma)

High glucose in the blood, but with low levels of insulin.
- Sweet/fruity breath smell - Acetone breath
- Treatment - Insulin injection, activate EMS
- Physical Findings:
- Skin - Flushed and dry
- Lack of appetite
- Pulse - Weak

Hypoglycemia (Insulin Shock)

Low glucose in the blood, but with high levels of insulin.
- Treatment - Give sugar to raise blood glucose (apple juice, cake frosting)
- Physical Findings:
- Skin - Moist and sweaty
- Hunger
- Pulse - Fast

Cleft Class 1

Cleft of tip of uvula (just the tip)

Cleft Class 2

Cleft of uvula (a bifid uvula)

Cleft Class 3

Cleft of soft palate

Cleft Class 4

Cleft of soft and hard palates

Cleft Class 5

Cleft of soft and hard palates that goes through the alveolar ridge on one side of premaxilla

Cleft Class 6

Cleft of soft and hard palates that goes through both sides of premaxilla

Hydroquinone and phenidone are examples of a(an):

Reducing agent

The fluoride concentration in saliva ranges from:

.01 to .04 ppm

Localized Juvenile Periodontitis is characterized my severe bone loss involving the:

first permanent molars and incisors.

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